Determination of Para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna Samples Collected from Libyan Local Markets Using HPLC

Authors

  • Galal M. Elmanfe Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Al-Bayda, Libya
  • Osama E. Khreit Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Al-Bayda, Libya.
  • Omukalthum A. Abduljalil Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Al-Bayda, Lib-ya.
  • Najah M. Abbas Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, Al-Bayda, Libya

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54172/mjsc.v37i1.520

Keywords:

Black Henna, PPD, Methanol, HPLC

Abstract

Henna is frequently used as body adornment in Libya, the Arabic world, and some African and Asian countries. It is part of the traditions and cultures. The addition of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) to the natural henna increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis as well as toxic effects, which sometimes lead to severe toxicity and death. Cases have already been reported in Al-Bayda city - Libya. This study aimed to identify the presence and determination of PPD in henna by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the current study, eleven henna samples were collected from local markets in Al-Bayda - Libya. A rapid, simple, and reliable method is developed and validated for the determination of PPD in henna samples using 50% methanol solution as solvent. The method is validated over a wide linear range of 5 – 25 µg/ml with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.997. The minimum PPD level was observed in a random sample of mixed henna (paste2) (0.0104 % w/w), while the Royal Black Henna sample showed the highest PPD content (11.9107 % w/w). The HPLC measurements indicated that the results of PPD concentrations in the Royal Red henna sample and Shikha henna (natural henna) were PPD free (ND) (Not Detected). The concentrations in Black henna samples were higher than Red henna samples. The PPD content in red henna samples analyzed in this study is below the allowable limits set by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP) and the US Food and Drugs Administration. While in Black henna samples it was higher than that recommended limit.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Al-Suwaidi, A., and Ahmed,H., (2010). Determination of para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna in the United Arab Emirates. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 7: 1681-1693. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7041681

Di Gioiaa, M.L., Leggioa, A., Le Peraa,A., Liguoria, A., (2005). Determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of p-phenylenediamine in hair dyes after conversion to an imine derivative, J Chromatogr A, 1066 ( 1–2): 143–148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2005.01.039

Doumas, C., and Doumas, A., (1992). The wall-paintings of Thera. Athens: Thera Foundation. ISBN 978-960-220-274-6. OCLC 3006976.

Du, L., Li, M., and Jin, Y., (2011). Determination of triclosan in antiperspirant gels by first-order derivative spectrophotometry, Pharmazi, 66(10): 740-743.

Elmanfe, G., Khreit, O., and Abduljalil, O., (2019). Determination of PPD in Hair Dyes Collected from Local Markets in El-Bieda City – Libya. Materials Science Forum, 955: 13-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.955.13

Hilton, C.L., (1960). Spectrophotometric determination of flexzone 3C and other p-phenylenediamine derivatives, Anal Chem., 32 (12): 1554–1557. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60168a005

HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank), (1993). Department of Health and Human Services. National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine. Bethesda, MD, USA.

Huihui. L., Hongbing. M., and Guanhong, T., (2009). Spectrophotometric determination of triclosan in personal care products, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular spectroscopy, 73(5): 854-857. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2009.04.007

Inzhang, G., Xiaodong, C. J., Ren, W.,Y., (2011). Determination of p-phenylenediamine by perturbation of a non-equilibrium stationary state in the B-Z reaction, Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, J Braz Chem Soc., 22 (4): 648-651.

Jacob, S.E., Zapolanski, T., Chayavichitsilp, P., (2008). Sensitivity to para-phenylenediamine and intolerance to hydrochlorothiazide, J Dermatitis, 19(6): 44 - 45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2310/6620.2008.08019

Kessarin, N., Surangkhana, M., Thawatcha, T., and Wittaya N., (2012). Selective fluorescence sensors for pphenylenediamine using formyl boronate ester with an assistance of micelles, Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 173: 682-691. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.07.077

Kind, F., Scherer, K., and Bircher, A.J., (2012). Contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in hair dye following sensitization to black henna tattoos-an ongoing problem, J Dtsch Dermatol Ges., 10(8): 572-578. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1610-0387.2011.07882_suppl.x

Latha Saranya, C.H., Gurupadayya, B.M., Kinnera, K., and Thejaswini, J.C., (2014). Spectrophotometric Determination of p-Phenylenediamine in Hair Dyes. Turk J Pharm Sci., 11(3): 295-306.

Lepoittevin, J-P., and LeCoz, C.J., (2007). Paraphenylenediamine. In: Dictionary of Contact Allergens, Ed (1): Springer, pp. 194-196, Berlin, Germany.

Mounika, CH. and M. Kinnera, M., (2015). A RP-HPLC method development and validatio of Para- Phentlendiamine in pure form and in marketed products, IJAPS, 2(1): 20-29.

Nitin, S. J., Muthu, L. M., Meena, S., and Duraivel, S., (2010). Validated visible spectrophotometric estimation of paraphenylenediamine, a carcinogenic ingredient in henna hair dyes, Int J Pharm Technol, 2(4): 900-906.

Olexander, I.K., and Natalia, I.S., (2010). Visual spectroscopy detection of triclosan, Chemical Papers, 64(4): 523-527. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11696-010-0026-6

Puri, N., and Puri, A., (2013). "A Study on Contact Dermatitis to Hair Dye and Henna". Nasza Dematologia, 4(4): 545 – 548. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7241/ourd.20134.137

Robert, A., Smiley, (2002). "Phenylene- and Toluenediamines" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

SCCP (Scientific Committee on Consumer Products), (2006). Opinion on P-phenylenediamine, Public Health and Risk Assessment, 9th plenary meeting, Brussels, Belgium 10(10).

Stambouli, A., Bellimam, M.A., El Karni, N., Bouayoun, T., and El Bouri, A., (2014). Optimization of an analytical method for detecting paraphenylenediamine (PPD) by GC/MSiontrap in biological liquids, Forensic Sci Int., 146: S87-S92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.09.029

Stanley, L.A., Skare, J.A., Doyle, E., Powrie, R., D'Angelo, D., Elcombe C.R., (2005). Lack of evidences for metabolism of p-phenylenediamine by human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, J Toxicol, 210 (2- 3): 147-157. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2005.01.019

Steller, H., (1995). Mechanisms and genes of cellular suicide Science. Science, 3(10): 1445-1449. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7878463

Thomas, C., Annette S-J., Günther, L., Werner, S., Klaus, D. L., Christian, S., Michael, F., Wolfgang, B., Sonja, I., Gerhard, M., and Rudolf, B., (2007). "Hair Preparations" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Thun, M.J., Altekruse, S.F., Namboodiri, M.M., Calle, E.E., Myers, D.G., (2005). Personal of hair dyes and the risk of blood cancer: results of a metaanalysis, Public Health Rep., 120(1): 31-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/003335490512000107

Ursula, V., Guy, B., and Adela, R.R., (2002). Validation of an analytical procedure for the determination of oxidative hair dyes in cosmetic formulations, J Cosmet Sci., 53: 43-58.

Yoshiaki, I., and Masa-aki K., (2000). Determination of p-phenylenediamine and related antioxidants in rubber boots by high performance liquid chromatography. Development of an analytical method for N- (1-Methylheptyl)-N′-phenyl-pphenylenediamine . J Health Science, 46(6): 467 - 473. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs.46.467

Downloads

Published

2022-03-31

How to Cite

Elmanfe, G. M., Khreit , O. E., Abduljalil , O. A. ., & Abbas , . N. M. . (2022). Determination of Para-Phenylenediamine (PPD) in Henna Samples Collected from Libyan Local Markets Using HPLC. Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences, 37(1), 13–21. https://doi.org/10.54172/mjsc.v37i1.520

Issue

Section

Research Articles

Categories

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.