Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences <div id="div-desktop"> <div class="row"> <div class="column1" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img src="" alt="" width="1349" height="1908" /></p> </div> <div class="column2" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by <strong><a href="">Omar Al-Mukhtar University</a></strong><strong>. </strong>It was founded in 1991 and has been publishing original Arabic and English articles quarterly, covering a wide range of pure and applied science providing global researchers with a free publishing platform. MJSc publishes its research through its electronic and paper version printed upon request.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope: </strong>MJSc focuses on promoting sciences generated from<strong> Pure and Applied sciences</strong>, to integrate researches in all aspects. MJSc publishes <strong>Original Articles</strong>, in addition to interesting <strong>Case Reports</strong>.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h3> </h3> <p><span style="color: #000080;"> </span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div id="div-mobile"> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img src="" alt="" /></p> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by <strong><a href="">Omar Al-Mukhtar University</a></strong><strong>. </strong>It was founded in 1991 and has been publishing original Arabic and English articles quarterly, covering a wide range of pure and applied science providing global researchers with a free publishing platform. MJSc publishes its research through its electronic and paper version printed upon request.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope: </strong>MJSc focuses on promoting sciences generated from<strong> Pure and Applied sciences</strong>, to integrate researches in all aspects. MJSc publishes <strong>Original Articles</strong>, in addition to interesting <strong>Case Reports</strong>.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> </div> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p> </p> </div> </div> Omar Al-Mukhtar University en-US Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences 2617-2178 <p>Copyright of the articles Published by Almukhtar Journal of Science (MJSc) is retained by the author(s), who grant MJSc a license to publish the article. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors and cite MJSc as original publisher. Also they accept the article remains published by MJSc website (except in occasion of a retraction of the article). </p> Bacterial Causes and their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing among Urinary Tract Infection Patients in Tobruk Area, Libya <p>Urinary tract infections are very common among people of all ages, but the disease is more prevalent in women, so proper clinical and laboratory diagnosis, and the right treatment are very important to avoid complications and antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to determine the bacterial causes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of UTI patients. Recorded results of 6065 urine sample cultures and their antimicrobial susceptibility tests from the Department of Microbiology in Tobruk Medical Center, Tobruk City, were obtained from September 2016 to December 2018. The data was analyzed and discussed in compare with other studies. The study showed that a UTI is more common in females (78.8%) compared with male patients (21.2%). Gram-negative bacteria accounted for the majority of urinary pathogens (90%), where <em>E. coli</em> alone was (58.4%), <em>klebsiellae</em> (17.4%), <em>Proteus</em> (10.7%), while <em>Pseudomonas</em> species was the least common (3.3%) of the total. While the Gram-positive bacteria <em>S. aureus</em> constituted 9.6% of the total. The study was found statistically significant (P=0.000). The most effective antibiotics against all uropathogens were Imipenem and Amikacin, and less effective antibiotics were Ampicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This study concluded that the most common cause of UTI in Tobruk was <em>Escherichia coli</em> and the most effective antibiotics appear to be Imipenem and Amikacin.</p> Mohammed T. Mostafa Khalid S. Mustafa Brijesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammed T. Mostafa, Khalid S. Mustafa , Brijesh Kumar 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 253 262 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.587 The Effect of Oxytocin on the Body Weight of Male Rabbits <p>This study was carried out to investigate the effect of two different doses of oxytocin on weight. Adult male rabbits (15) were weighed and provided with food twice daily for 3 weeks to determine the amount of food consumed daily and the time spent feeding by each rabbit. After 3 weeks the rabbits were weighed and divided randomly into 3groups: the control group, the low dose group, and the high dose group. The animals were injected daily for 3 weeks. During that time the amount of food consumed and the time spent feeding in both periods were determined. After the end of the treatment period the rabbits were weighed, and sacrificed. The results of this study showed that before treatment the rabbits consumed more food in the evening period than they did in the afternoon period. The mean time spent feeding in the evening period was slightly higher than that spent in the afternoon period; however, this difference was not statistically significant. After treatment, there was still significant difference between the means of the consumed food in the afternoon and the evening period for the control group. The mean amounts of food consumed in both periods by the treated groups were slightly reduced, but this reduction was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the mean time spent feeding in the evening period was slightly higher than that of the afternoon period for the 3 groups; however, these differences were not significant. The mean weight of the control group was slightly increased after treatment with the hormone; and the mean weights of the treated groups were slightly reduced after treatment. However, changes in body weighs were not statistically significant.</p> Areej A. Mohammed Aisha F. Bonaama Souad A. M. Moftah Ameerah T. Ramadhan Abdulsalam M. A. Bolhaj Somya A. Aregeb Mohamed A. ElMabrouk Copyright (c) 2021 Areej A. Mohammed, Aisha F. Bonaama, Souad A. M. Moftah, Ameerah T. Ramadhan, Abdulsalam M. A. Bolhaj, Somya A. Aregeb, Mohamed A. ElMabrouk 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 263 272 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.369 Disease Burden of Neonatal Care Unit at Al-Bayda Medical Center Al-Bayda Libya <p>This research was conducted to determine the number, disease pattern, and outcome of the patients admitted at the Neonatal Care Unit (NCU) at Al-Bayda &nbsp;medical center (AMC) in Libya. A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on all neonates admitted to the NCU between January 2008 and December 2008. The collected data include age, gender, mode and site of delivery, number of gestations, maturity, duration of stay, cause of admission, and outcome. Total infants delivered were 10075, 620 (6.1%) of them were admitted to NCU with a (6.15%) admission rate, 56.5% were male and 43.5% were female, of whom 613 (98.9%) were inborn and 519 (83.7%) were term neonates; 523 (84.4%) of total born were by normal vaginal delivery (NVD). 48.7% of total admissions occurred during the first 24 hours of life. The average length of hospital stay for term births was 5.6 days (SD 5.4) and for preterm 8.7 days (SD 8.55). The common causes of admission were neonatal jaundice (29.3%), followed by neonatal infections (17.6%) were prematurity accounts for (16.3%), and respiratory distress (11.1%). The majority of the admitted neonates improved and were discharged 517 (83.4%), 37(6%) left against medical advice (LAMA) and nineteen (3%) were referred to other specialized hospitals for further management. The neonatal mortality rate was 0.4%, and the overall hospital neonatal mortality rate was 7.6%. According to the cause-specific death rate analysis, prematurity was the most common cause of death (29.8%), followed by sepsis (17%) and birth asphyxia (12.8%). In conclusion, neonatal jaundice, infection, and prematurity complications were the leading causes of morbidity in neonates. The case-fatality rate was high for prematurity, sepsis, and birth asphyxia. Most of these etiologies are preventable to some extent by regular prenatal visits, healthy delivery practices, and timely referral to hospitals which can reduce NCU burden and improve outcomes</p> Kamala O. Younis Wafa J. Saed Copyright (c) 2021 Kamala O. Younis , Wafa J. Saed 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 273 279 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.589 Seismic Attributes Aided Characterization of Margin Backstepping and Advance along Isolated Carbonate Sequences, Sirt Basin, Libya <p>Isolated carbonate platforms are common and contain significant hydrocarbon accumulations, particularly in the tectonically complex Sirt Basin in Libya. This study investigates the margin cyclicity of two carbonate stratigraphic sequences developed on an isolated carbonate platform in the NW Sirt Basin using 3-D post-stack seismic volume and wireline log data. The two sequences (sequences 4 and 5) are bounded by unconformity surfaces from the base and top. Seismic attributes show that each sequence displays a cycle of margin backstepping followed by margin advance for several hundred meters. This study concludes that the margin backstepping and advance are mainly influenced by sea-level changes. A rapid sea-level rise caused the backstepping, whereas slow sea-level rise caused the margin advance.</p> Muneer A. Abdalla Copyright (c) 2021 Muneer A. Abdalla 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 280 287 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.590 Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery in Elwasita Area of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar-Libya - Based on Remote Sensing Information <p>Satellite-based remote sensing technologies and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) present operable and cost-effective solutions for mapping fires and observing post-fire regeneration. Elwasita wildfire, which occurred during April and May in 2013 in Libya, was selected as a study site. This study aims to monitor vegetation recovery and investigate the relationship between vegetation recovery and topographic factors by using multi-temporal spectral indices together with topographical factors. Landsat 8 (OLI and TIRS) images from different data were obtained which were for four years; April 2013, June 2014, July 2015, and July 2016, to assess the related fire severity using the widely-used Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR).&nbsp; Normalized difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to determine vegetation regeneration dynamics for four consecutive years. Also, the state of damage, vegetation recovery and, damage dimensions about the burned area were capable of being effectively detected using the result of supervised classification of Landsat satellite images. In addition, aspect, slope, and altitude images derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were used to determine the fire severity of the study area. The results have found that it could be possible to figure out the degree of vegetation recovery by calculating the NDVI and NBR using Landsat 8 OLI and TIRS images. Analysis showed that it mainly oriented towards the northwest (47%), north (29%), and northeast (12%). The statistical analysis showed that fire was concentrated on the incline by 76%, and the most affected areas are those between 200 m-450 m above sea level, with a percentage of 80%. It is expected that the information can be acquired by various satellite data and digital forests. This study serves as a window to an understanding of the process of fire severity and vegetation recovery that is vital in wildfire management systems.</p> Moussa Masoud Copyright (c) 2021 Moussa J. Masoud 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 288 299 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.588 Aortic Root Dilatation in Children and Adolescents At Al-Hawary General Hospital, & National Benghazi Cardiac Center -Libya <p>Isolated dilatation of the aortic root and/or ascending aorta is a rare but well-known cardiovascular manifestation, can be caused by a variety of congenital or acquired conditions; that lead to the weakening of the aortic wall. The study aimed to detect the cause and the rate of the aortic root dilatation in children and adolescents, and to assess the effect of the Beta-adrenergic blockers in preventing further dilatation in the aortic root. A case series study was perform with five years of follow-up at Al-Hawary General Hospital, National Benghazi Cardiac Center. A total of 91 patients were seen with ascending aortic dilatation and/or root dilatation during the period from 6/2016 - 6/2021 included in the study diagnosed by clinical examination, chest x-ray, and echocardiogram. The diagnosis in 34/91(37%) was Tetralogy of fallout (TOF) and truncus arteriosus, 57/91 (63%) was dilated aortic root, 25/57 (44%) bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), 22/57 (38.5%) Marfan syndrome, 4/57(7%) Noonan syndrome, 2/57(3.5%) Turner syndrome, 3/57(5%) Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, 1/57(2%) idiopathic<strong>. </strong>Follow-up results of three months – five years<strong>:</strong> 57/91 patients with aortic root dilatation were followed up, none of the Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome patients who received beta-blockers had shown progression in the dilatation of the aortic root, and all patients who had bicuspid aortic valve did not show any progression in the dilatation without using medication. Conclusions: Dilated aortic root is a common finding in Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic root, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and its progress could be decreased by using beta-adrenergic blockers in rapidly progressing dilation.</p> Rasmia H. Feituri Hanan El Megasbi Mariam M. El maadani Amal Khazm Copyright (c) 2021 Rasmia H. Feituri, Hanan El Megasbi, Mariam M. El maadani , Amal Khazm 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 300 307 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.591 Monitoring of Organochlorine Pesticides and Certain Heavy Metal Residues in Selected Vegetables and Fruits Collected from Eastern Libyan Markets <p>Organochlorine pesticides are among the most common pollutants in the environment due to their high persistence, transportation throughout the food chain, and accumulation in the tissues of living organisms. This study was carried out owing to the lack of data on the residue levels of these pesticides and the heavy metals in vegetables and fruits that are present in the markets of the Eastern region of Libya, and to know the extent of their hazard to the health of the consumer by comparing them to the global Maximum Residue Limits. The results of analysis of some organochlorine pesticide residues (Chlordene, delta-HCH, gamma-HCH, beta-HCH, Dicofol, Endosulfan, P, P´-DDE, P´P´, DDD, Endrin,&nbsp; Heptachlor) and heavy metals in vegetable and fruit in Derna, El-Beida, and Al-Marg markets showed high significant differences between samples collected among seasons, where spring samples was more contaminated followed by autumn and summer. Also, Derna city was the most polluted area, followed by El-Beida and then Al-Marg. On the other hand, tomato samples contained the highest concentrations of lead and differed significantly from cucumbers, peppers, and lettuce. Zucchini was the least contaminated crop with lead but was the highest contaminated with zinc. By comparing pollution levels with the MRL globally, not all tested vegetables and fruits showed that they contained quantities higher than the internationally permissible limit in all regions and all seasons. Excluding Dicofol, Chlordene, and Heptachlor, which exceeded MRL in some vegetables and fruit such as tomato and zucchini.</p> Ifdial Omer EL-Awami Rabaha M. ELJarari Copyright (c) 2021 Ifdial Omer EL-Awami , Rabaha M. ELJarari 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 308 325 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.586 Effect of Some Fungal Strains on Seed Germination of Faba Bean var. minor in Libya <p>This research was conducted during the season 2019-2020 at the plant pathology laboratory-Faculty of Agriculture-Omar Al-Mukhtar University, to study the effect of some isolates of fungi <em>Botrytis cinerea</em>, <em>Macrophomina phaseolina</em>, <em>Sclerotinia sclertiorum</em>, <em>Rhizoctonia solani,</em> and <em>Trichoderma harzianum</em> on germination percentage, germination speed and root disease levels in seeds of <em>Vicia faba</em> minor variety in vitro. Seeds were incubated after sterilization and planting on WA media (1%) in Petri dishes inoculated with the fungi. The experiment recorded significant differences in germination ratio, germination speed, and level of disease. The best germination (91.7%) was recorded in <em>T. harzianum</em> treatment but not more than the control treatment (100%), and the minimum germination (25%) was in seeds treated with <em>M. phaseolina</em> and <em>R. solani</em>. Germination speed was higher (3.1) in <em>Trichoderma</em> periphery than that in control and pathogenic fungi treatments. While the disease level reached 4.8 in <em>R. solani</em> and it recorded 0 in <em>Trichoderma</em> and control treatments. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the seed treatment with <em>T. harzianum</em> can be beneficial to enhance Faba bean seed germination as well as reduce delayed germination.</p> Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali Amina Abdul-Hamied Saad Copyright (c) 2021 Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali, Amina Abdul-Hamied Saad 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 326 333 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.575 Fungi Isolated from Cockroach (Periplaneta americana ) Preserved in the Department of Plant Protection Insect Museum <p>This study was conducted to isolate and identify fungi associated with the cockroach <em>Periplaneta americana </em>L. (Orthroptera: Blattidae) which was taken from the Insect Museum of the Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Bayda, Libya. Ten insects were collected from insect specimen boxes containing naphthalene crystals. The insects were separated into their parts, legs, wings, antennae, and mouthparts, superficially sterilized, and incubated on PSA nutrient medium. Eight species of fungi were isolated. The identified fungal isolates include <em>Alternaria altemata</em>,<em> Aspergillus</em> <em>niger</em>, <em>A. terreus,</em> <em>Beauvaria</em> sp., <em>Madurella</em> sp., <em>Penicillium verrucosum</em>, <em>P.</em> <em>commune</em>, <em>Penicillum</em> sp. It was carried on parts of the insect’s body, the study also showed that <em>A. niger</em> was the most common fungi isolated with a frequency of 23.8% and the percentage reached 41.7%, followed by<em> A. altemata</em> and <em>P. verrucosum </em>with a frequency of 9.5% and 7.1%, and the percentage was 16.7% and 12.7% for both fungi respectively, and the lowest density was for <em>A. terreus,</em> <em>Beauvaria</em> sp. which reached 8.3%. From this study, it was concluded that the isolated fungi are storage fungi that attack insects preserved in museums, exposing them to damage.</p> Fathia saeid Hamed Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali Copyright (c) 2021 Fathia saeid Hamed, Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 334 341 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.578 Effect of Uropygialectomy at Two Early Ages on Some Production and Physio-logical Characteristics of Ross Broiler Chicks <p>This study was conducted to investigate the effects of surgical excision of the uropygial gland at early ages (7 and 14 d of age) on some production and physiological traits of Ross broiler chicks. A total number of 252 one-day-old chicks were randomly distributed into 3 groups, 84 birds/group (each with 3 replicates), group C: control without surgical excision of the uropygial gland. Group T1: surgical excision of the uropygial gland at the age of 7 d. group T2: surgical excision of the uropygial gland was done at the age of 14 d. The results of production traits showed that T1&amp;T2 broilers had higher (P&lt;0.05) final mean live body weight, cumulative weight gain, mean cumulative feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, production index (PI), While they showed no significant differences in viability ratio compared to control. Blood samples were withdrawn on day 42 from 12 bird/group for the determination of some serum biochemical parameters. Mean serum total protein and alkaline phosphates (ALP) levels were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in T1 &amp; T2 groups, while the level of uric acid and total cholesterol was significantly decreased in these groups compared to control. On the other hand, excision of the uropygial gland did not affect serum corticosterone, blood glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine amino transaminase (ALT) levels compared to control. We conclude from this experiment that surgical excision of the uropygial gland at early ages (7 &amp; 14 days), especially at the age of 7 days, led to a significant improvement in the biochemical tests of blood serum and helped to increase the metabolic rate and protein synthesis, which resulted in a significant improvement in all the productive traits studied.</p> Salma M. A. Alostaomar Salem M. E. Sharafad Copyright (c) 2021 Salma M. A. Alostaomar , Salem M. E. Sharafad 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 342 352 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.576 Taxonomic Study on Libellulidae Species (Odonata: Anisoptera) in Al-Marj Region Libya <p>The study was aimed to identify some species of Odonata on Al-Marj area in Aljabal Alakder. The study &nbsp;carried out from January 2018 to December 2019 in Al Jabal Al Akhdar region which aimed to identify the species of the suborder Anisoptera, family Libellulidae in twelve sites. Four species of this family were recorded, <em>Crocothemis erythraea </em>(Brulle, 1832), <em>Orthetrum anceps </em>(Schneider, 1845), <em>Sympetrum fonscolombii</em> (Selys, 1840), and <em>Trithemis arteriosa</em> (Burmeister, 1839), endemic to the study area. Their identification was based on the external morphology of the adults.</p> Youssef Mousa Zayeid Altaib Noah Altaib Copyright (c) 2021 Youssef Mousa Zayeid, Altaib Noah Altaib 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 353 362 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.577 Allelopathic Effects of Chickpea on Anatomical Traits of Wheat Varieties Triticum aestivum L <p>This current research deals with the study of the effect of allelopathic compounds of the plant residues of the shoot and root systems of chickpea plants on some anatomical traits of wheat cultivars (Bohoos-4, Debeira, Terbol). It included a study of the anatomical traits of the leaves of the tested wheat varieties and the anatomy of cross-sections of the stems. Results showed differences in the studied traits (number and dimensions of epidermal cells, number and dimensions of stomata, length and number of hairs, frequency and coefficient of stomata) by the effect of plant residues and aqueous extracts treated with them. There was an increase in the number of stomata, stomata coefficient, stomata frequency, hair numbers, and epidermal cell numbers in most of the treatments. Regarding the anatomical traits of stems (section diameter, pith diameter, number and dimensions of bundles) significant differences were noted in the studied characteristics of the cross-section.</p> Wasan S. Hussain Noor Al.Huda A. Taher Mahmoud M. Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Wasan S. Hussain, Noor Al.Huda A. Taher, Mahmoud M. Abbas 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 36 4 363 372 10.54172/mjsc.v36i4.574