Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences <div id="div-desktop"> <div class="row"> <div class="column1" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img src="" alt="" width="1349" height="1908" /></p> </div> <div class="column2" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by <strong><a href="">Omar Al-Mukhtar University</a></strong><strong>. </strong>It was founded in 1991 and has been publishing original Arabic and English articles quarterly, covering a wide range of pure and applied science providing global researchers with a free publishing platform. MJSc publishes its research through its electronic and paper version printed upon request.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope: </strong>MJSc focuses on promoting sciences generated from<strong> Pure and Applied sciences</strong>, to integrate researches in all aspects. MJSc publishes <strong>Original Articles</strong>, in addition to interesting <strong>Case Reports</strong>.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h3> </h3> <p><span style="color: #000080;"> </span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div id="div-mobile"> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img class="mobile-image" src="" alt="" /></p> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by <strong><a href="">Omar Al-Mukhtar University</a></strong><strong>. </strong>It was founded in 1991 and has been publishing original Arabic and English articles quarterly, covering a wide range of pure and applied science providing global researchers with a free publishing platform. MJSc publishes its research through its electronic and paper version printed upon request.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope: </strong>MJSc focuses on promoting sciences generated from<strong> Pure and Applied sciences</strong>, to integrate researches in all aspects. MJSc publishes <strong>Original Articles</strong>, in addition to interesting <strong>Case Reports</strong>.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> </div> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p> </p> </div> </div> Omar Al-Mukhtar University en-US Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences 2617-2178 <p>Copyright of the articles Published by Almukhtar Journal of Science (MJSc) is retained by the author(s), who grant MJSc a license to publish the article. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors and cite MJSc as original publisher. Also they accept the article remains published by MJSc website (except in occasion of a retraction of the article). </p> Synthesis and Study of the Crystal Structure of 2-[(Dipyrrolidin-1-yl) methylene] malononitrile <p>This study aims to synthesis 2-[(dipyrrolidin-1-yl)methylene] malononitrile 2 and identify its crystal structure by X-ray diffraction analysis. 2-[(dipyrrolidin-1-yl)methylene] malononitrile was prepared by a direct displacement of the methylthio group (SMe) in the 2-[bis(methylthio)methylene] malononitrile 1 with pyrrolidine as cyclic secondary amine by conjugating addition-elimination reaction under reflux conditions for two hours. The compound was obtained in high yield (80%). The structure of compound 2-[(dipyrrolidin-1-yl)methylene] malononitrile2 was identified by performing X-ray diffraction analysis. Suitable crystals of compound 2 were grown by slow evaporation of methanol solution of the compound. The compound 2 crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal system with a space group of<em> Pbcn</em>. In the title compound, the two cyanide groups and the two pyrrolidine rings adopted <em>trans</em> configurations across the C2=C3 bond. The bond lengths and angles of the two pyrrolidinyl rings in the compound are within the normal range. The maximum deviation of N5/C2/C3/C4/N5<sup>a</sup>/C4<sup>a</sup> is 0.002(1) around C4, and no deviation has been recorded for the fragment N1/N1<sup>a</sup>/C2/C3 (0.000 (1)°). The dihedral angle between the pyrrolidine ring and N1/N1<sup>a</sup>/C2/C3 is 33.06(8)°, and the dihedral angle between the pyrrolidine ring and N5/C2/C3/C4/N5<sup>a</sup>/C4<sup>a</sup> is 50.57(7)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by two intermolecular and one intramolecular C---H…N hydrogen bonds, which form a one-dimensional polymeric chain along the axis.</p> Wedad M. Al-Adiwish Wedad M. Barag Copyright (c) 2022 Wedad M. Al-Adiwish 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 105 112 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.383 Water Quality Assessment of Lakes (Ain Al-Ghazala and Umm-Hufayn) for Fish Culture in the Eastern Coast of Libya <p>Assessments of some physical and chemical properties were conducted for two Libyan water bodies (Ain Al- Ghazala and Umm-Hufayn). Of each ecosystem, ten water samples were taken from ten points for analysis. The results showed that the electric conductivity in Ain Al-Ghazala Bay waters is higher than that in the waters of Umm-Hufayn Lake. In the two areas, the hydrogen ion concentration pH recorded the highest value with a value of 8.3, with mean values of chloride (Cl) exceeding the internationally recorded limits. Furthermore, nitrites (NO<sub>2)</sub>, nitrate (NO<sub>3)</sub>, sulphate (SO<sub>4)</sub>, phosphate (PO<sub>4)</sub>, silicates (SiO<sub>2)</sub>, carbonate (CO<sub>3)</sub>, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were all greater in Ain Al-Ghazala Bay waters than in Umm-Hufayn Lake waters. In conclusion, more attention should be directed to the preservation of such natural resources.</p> Amani F. Fitori Anwar A. R. Al-Mismari Aldoushy A. Mahdy Rashad E.M. Said Ashraf N. Masoud Copyright (c) 2022 Amani Fitori, Anwar A. R. Al-Mismari, Aldoushy Mahdy, Rashad E.M. Said 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 113 119 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.527 Determination of Heavy Metals in Henna Leaves and Cosmetic Henna Products Available in Zliten, Libya <p>Henna is widely used by Libyan women as a cosmetic, which may contain lead (pb), cadmium (Cd) and other toxic heavy metals. The purpose of this study was to determine heavy metal content of seven henna products, imported and locally produced in Zliten, Libya. An analytical method was performed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). In terms of heavy metal content determination, the results revealed a significant difference between henna leaves and cosmetic henna samples. The premixed henna sample H2 had the highest heavy metal concentrations with a high level of lead (6.952ppm), exceeding the WHO's maximum limit and the (ASEAN) Guidelines on Limits of Contaminants for Cosmetics Heavy metal maximum limits, Lead (Pb) is 1 ppm. Nickel (Ni) levels in (H4=5.201ppm) and (H6=2.023ppm ) henna samples were found to be above the WHO's limit of 1.68ppm. The results indicated that such cosmetics expose consumers to high levels of Pb and Cu, and hence to potential health risks. Thus, investigating the sources and effects of heavy metals in such cosmetics is strongly advised.</p> Ismail A. Ajaj wafaa Amhimmid Hala Ismail Tahani Al-Arabi Khawla Al-Oraibi Copyright (c) 2022 wafaa Khalleefah 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 120 126 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.372 Determining the Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and their Patterns of Susceptibility to Antibiotics among Benghazi Women, Libya <p>Vaginal discharge in women is occasionally caused by aerobic bacterial organisms. The study aimed to determine the etiology of female vaginosis and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. HV culture results, age, and sex of all female patients with suspected bacterial vaginosis were collected. High vaginal swabs were inoculated into MacConkey agar, 5% blood agar, and chocolate agar and then incubated at 37°C in the presence of 5% CO<sub>2</sub> for 24-48 h. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ten different antibiotic discs were used: Amikacin, Augmentin, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Levofloxacin, Meropenem, Septrin, and Clindamycin. After 24 hours, zones were measured in mm, and zone interpretations were in accordance with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards criteria guidelines. A total of 215 females were included in the study, the incidence of bacterial vaginosis was 18.6% (40/215). Females between 33 and 45 years old had a somewhat high prevalence (19/40:47.5%) of bacterial vaginosis. The most frequent isolates were 45% (18/40) <em>Escherichia coli</em> followed by 15% (6/40) <em>Strep pneumonia</em>. The in vitro susceptibility tests of the most common isolates showed high resistance levels to commonly used antibiotics such as Augmentin and Gentamycin. Whereas highly sensitive rates were observed for Ceftriaxone 70%, followed by Ciprofloxacin 57.5%. Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin showed the best antibiotic sensitivity. Additional studies are necessary to recognize those bacterial species that cause vaginal infections and determine the susceptibility of those species to recently used antibiotics.</p> Noor alhooda M. Alawkally Hamza K. Ibrahim Nessren F. Mousa Mareei. A. Ali Abdlmanam S. Fakron Nesrine M. Al-awkally Muftah A. Nasib Alreda M. Al-Awkally Fathia M. SenossI Copyright (c) 2022 Noor alhooda Alawkally 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 127 137 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.366 Morphological Description of Some Megachilidae Species in Aljabal Alakhder, Libya <p>Bees are a large and diverse species of insects belonging to the Hymenoptera order. The family Megachilidae represents a large part of most of the bee fauna all over the world as a result of their importance as pollinators. The study aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of three species of wild bees belonging to<em> Megachile</em> <em>parientina</em> (Geoffroy, 1785), <em>Rhodanthidium sticticum </em>(Fabricius, 1787), and <em>Anthidium diadema </em>Latreille, 1809 in Aljabal Alakder, Libya. Specimens were collected by hand net from different locations in the Aljabal Alakder area (Albayda and Alwastia). The morphological characters were described by using the OPTIC microscope. Measurements were taken at full body length (in cm), front wings length, thorax and abdomen width, body color was taken (head, abdomen, thorax, wings), and the study described in details the morphology of mouthparts, wings venation, antenna and abdominal structure for all species. The morphological structures vary between the different species in color, size, and wings. The body length of <em>M.</em> <em>parientina </em>was 19 mm, <em>R. sticticum </em>was 12 mm, and<em> A. diadema</em> was 13 mm. The study’s conclusion insists on the importance of morphological description studies to facilitate the identification of wild bees species in Libya.</p> Marwah Y. H. Almabrouk Ali A. Bataw Mansour S. A. Attia Asrana R. Mohammrd Muna M, Algbali Copyright (c) 2022 Marwah Almabrouk 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 138 149 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.373 Identification of Potential Natural Bioactive Compounds from Glycyrrhiza glabra as Sars-CoV-2 Main Protease (MPRO) Inhibitors: In-Silico Approach <p>The SARS-CoV-2 virus caused the COVID-19 pandemic declared in early 2020, generating a global health emergency. So far, no approved drugs or vaccines are available. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore and develop effective new therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the main protease (Mpro) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is considered essential in the virus replication propagation and considered a drug discovery target. Consequently, plant-derived compounds are an important and valuable source for novel drugs. This study reports molecular docking-based virtual screening (VS) of 20 compounds identified from Glycyrrhiza glabra to search for potent compounds against 3CL proteases (3CLpro). The screening results revealed that the identified compounds Semilicoisoflavone B, Licoflavone B, and Licocoumarin A exhibited low free energy of binding (FEB) values of 10.91, −10.29, and −10.21 kcal/mole for Autodock 4.2 and −9.81, −9.77, and −9.60 kcal/mole, for AutoDockVina, respectively. The obtained results of FEB in this study were better than the coordinated ligand N3, which was -7.4 kcal/mole. The three potential compounds showed different and stable interactions with the essential amino acids, especially the catalytic dyad (Cys145-His41) in the binding pocket of the 3CLpro. Three potential inhibitors were successfully identified from Glycyrrhiza glabra using molecular docking and virtual screening; these compounds obeyed the Lipinski rule of 5 with a little violation and showed low FEB and good interactions with the 3CLpro. These identified compounds may serve as potential leads that help in developing therapeutic agents against the SARS-CoV-2. Further research is recommended (in vitro and in vivo) to verify the above findings.</p> Ashraf A. A. Abdusalam Gazala M. Ben-Hander Copyright (c) 2022 Ashraf Abdusalam 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 150 161 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.679 Flea Infestations on Domestic Animals in Nafusa Mountain Region, North-West Libya <p>Fleas are ectoparasitic pests on domestic animals and act as vectors of many pathogens to humans. Here, we aim to identify the fleas that parasitize on domestic animals and their seasonality in the Nafusa Mountain region (Gharyan, Zintan, and Nalut). The survey was carried out from summer 2017 to winter 2018/2019. Fleas were collected seasonally from flea-infested animals using a metal comb (11 teeth per cm) and tweezers. One flea species was identified in this survey; <em>Ctenocephalides felis</em>, which was collected from goats, sheep, rabbits, donkeys, hens, cats, and dogs. The highest flea prevalence was among goats (66.49 %), followed by sheep (56.17%), whereas in dogs, donkeys, hens, rabbits, and cats, it represented less than 50.00%. The highest flea intensity was among dogs (4.50 ± 3.04 fleas per dog), while the lowest intensity was among hens (0.87 ± 0.59 fleas per hen). The highest mean flea abundance was among cats (8.00), whereas goats, sheep, donkeys, dogs, and hens represented less than 1.50 fleas per host. Summer and autumn represented the highest intensity followed by spring, but no fleas were collected in winter. The finding of the study indicated that <em>Ct. felis</em> was common among domestic animals. Consequently, it may become a potential source of pathogen transmission among people and animals.</p> Waleed Y. M. Aboulqassim Salah Ghana Taher Shaibi Copyright (c) 2022 Salah Ghana 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 162 167 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.645 Sensitivity testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Asparagopsis taxiformis extracts <p><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> has been to possess a unique level of resistance to most antibiotics, therefore made in the list of types to cause infections in Libyan hospitals. This study was conducted to test the sensitivity of three <em>P.aeruginosa</em> isolates from different infections: infection tract urinary (U), Wound infection (W), Diarrhoea (D), to aqueous and ethanol extracts of <em>Asparagopsis taxiformis</em> at a concentration of (50, 100) mg/ml, compared with Neomycin and Gentamycin. The results showed the sensitivity of all <em>P.aeruginosa</em> isolates to <em>A.taxiformis</em> extracts, superiority is observed of ethanol extract at a concentration of 100 mg/ml on antibiotics and aqueous extract. <em>P.aeruginosa</em> (U) isolates were the most sensitive to extracts, while <em>P.aeruginosa</em> (W) isolates were the most resistant to extracts and antibiotics. The results also showed a resistance of all isolates to gentamycin compared to neomycin. Data in this study indicated to possibility use of <em>Asparagopsis taxiformis</em> could be a valid alternative for bio-control of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>.</p> Sami M. salih Ahmed A. Abdulrraziq Copyright (c) 2022 Sami mohammed salih 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 168 174 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.553 Effect of Methotrexate on Recognition Memory in Adult Female Mice <p>Methotrexate MTX is used to treat some types of cancers, skin diseases, and rheumatic diseases. Many studies have suggested that it may lead to memory damage in mice. Accordingly, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of different doses of methotrexate on recognition memory in mice. Twenty-four adult female albino mice (weighing between 30-36 g) were divided equally into four groups and subjected to one of the following treatments: the control group (injected with normal saline), the second group treated with a dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX, the third group treated with a dose of 40 mg/kg of MTX, the fourth group treated with a dose of 80 mg/kg of MTX. All doses were given once intraperitoneally. A memory test was performed half an hour after injection, comprising object training and a new object recognition test. The results of this study showed that the MTX-injected mice had a lower rate of exploration of the novel object compared to the control group, and MTX has a dose-dependent negative effect on cognitive behavior. These findings suggest that methotrexate has a negative effect on the recognition memory of mice.</p> Wafa F. Elmatoni Fatima H. Ahmed Hajer M. Ghliwo Mustafa M. Drah Copyright (c) 2022 Wafa Elmatoni 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 37 2 175 184 10.54172/mjsc.v37i2.617