Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences <div id="div-desktop"> <div class="row"> <div class="column1" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img src="" alt="" width="1349" height="1908" /></p> </div> <div class="column2" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a <strong>peer-reviewed, open-access journal published free of charge</strong> by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Omar Al-Mukhtar University</strong></a><strong>. </strong>The journal was founded in 1991 and has been publishing articles in English and Arabic covering a wide range of pure and applied sciences. It accepts original research articles and interesting case studies from anywhere in the world. <strong>In the journal’s electronic version, accepted articles are published after acceptance. In its hardcopy version, it is published quarterly. </strong></p> <p>The journal operates a <strong>double-blind peer review process</strong>, and the articles are made permanently available free of charge. The journal is funded by the university and does not charge submission or publication fees.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong><strong> and Scope</strong><strong>: Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>focuses on promoting research in all fields of pure and applied sciences of local, regional and international interest.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h3> </h3> <p><span style="color: #000080;"> </span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div id="div-mobile"> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img class="mobile-image" src="" alt="" /></p> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by <strong><a href="">Omar Al-Mukhtar University</a></strong><strong>. </strong>It was founded in 1991 and has been publishing original Arabic and English articles quarterly, covering a wide range of pure and applied science providing global researchers with a free publishing platform. MJSc publishes its research through its electronic and paper version printed upon request.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope: </strong>MJSc focuses on promoting sciences generated from<strong> Pure and Applied sciences</strong>, to integrate researches in all aspects. MJSc publishes <strong>Original Articles</strong>, in addition to interesting <strong>Case Reports</strong>.</p> <p> </p> </div> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p> </p> </div> </div> en-US <p>Copyright of the articles Published by Almukhtar Journal of Science (MJSc) is retained by the author(s), who grant MJSc a license to publish the article. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors and cite MJSc as original publisher. Also they accept the article remains published by MJSc website (except in occasion of a retraction of the article). </p> (Ali A. Bataw) (Abdulsalam Albukhari ) Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The Allelopathic Effects of Two Species of Cistus Genus on Germination and Root Length of Ceratonia Siliqua L. <p>This study examines the allelopathic effects of <em>Cistus incanus (synonym C. villosus) </em>L. and <em>Cistus salviifolius</em> L. on the germination and the root length of <em>Ceratonia siliqua</em>. Six aqueous extracts were prepared for both species by soaking fresh leaves in cold water, boiling leaves and leaving for 24 hours, and grinding dried leaves. The result suggests that the germination percentage was slightly affected by extract concentration regardless of the type of extraction since F-value and P-value at 0.05 confidence level were 2.93 and 0.043 respectively. However, root length showed a significant response to the type of extraction, extract concentration, and interaction between both factors as F-values reached 6.3, 12.4, and 2.4 respectively. LSD test showed the response of seeds germination was inverse with the increase of concentration. In addition, it showed that the extracts of dried leaves were higher in root inhibition than the extracts of fresh leaves. The interaction effect reached its highest values when comparing the dried leaves’ extract to the freshly soaked ones, even for the same concentrations. In conclusion, seeds of <em>c. siliqua</em> were able to easily start germination because the nutrition compounds needed were available in the endosperm, and the media supported them just by moisture for establishment. While for root length, the root tissue absorbed extra quantities of the inhibiting agents from media leading to failure or weakness in root development.</p> Mohamed A. Omar, Moussa Masoud , Abdulsalam A. Albukhari Copyright (c) 2022 Mohamed Omar Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of Food Safety Rules among Women and Their Perception and Attitude Towards Their Application in the Celebration Halls in Tripoli, Libya <p>The government through its respective institutions and centers is responsible for protecting the consumers by assuring the safety of food supplies until consumption. The study sought to assess the knowledge of food safety, discover the incidence of food poisoning, evaluate the perception of meals and waitresses, and know the attitude towards the meals served among a sample of women who attended celebrations in the celebration halls in Tripoli city, Libya. A total of 410 women were selected randomly and data were collected through face-to-face interviews using questionnaire forms. A chi-square test was used for independence. The majority of the participants (41.7%) were between the age of 18 and 25 years. The results showed that the majority of the participants (95.4%) had a good level of food safety knowledge. Also, the results showed a significant association between age and occupation of the participants and food safety knowledge scores (P&lt;0.05). Twenty-four percent of the participants reported that they were exposed to food poisoning after eating dinner in the celebration halls. Only 15% of women always washed their hands before eating the meal in the celebration halls. A significant association was found between hand washing practice and food poisoning exposure (p &lt;0.05). Only 22.4% of participants agreed that the food served inside the celebration hall was safe. It is very clear that the meals served at celebration halls need to be regulated by the repective authorities. In addition, the respective public authorities should be working hard to eliminate the negative perception of individuals about food safety practices in celebration halls.</p> Thuraya A. Abuhlega, Dorsaf A. Al turki Copyright (c) 2022 Thuraya Abuhlega Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Potato Bacterial Wilt Disease Using Abiotic Treatments <p>Bacterial wilt disease caused by <em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em> (Smith) Yabuuchi is one of the most important bacterial diseases in the world. This study aimed to test some chemical compounds such as bactericides that were applied to control bacterial wilt disease under artificial inoculation conditions and their effects on the yield of potatoes under greenhouse conditions.<em>In vitro</em>, tested chemical compounds (Cefalexin, Gentamycin, and Copper sulphate) inhibit the growth of <em>R. solanacerum</em> compared with control treatment. Copper sulphate was the most effective where the Inhibition zone diameter was 6.0 to7.4mm compared with cefalexin and gentamycin, 3.6 to 5.8mm respectively, but cefalexin was moderately effective 4.2 to 5.8mm and gentamycin was less effective 3.6 to 5.8mm against the pathogen. Inhibition zone diameter was increased with increasing concentrations of tested chemical compounds. Greenhouse experiments showed that the chemical compounds used reduced the severity of potato bacterial wilt disease and increased potato yield compared with control treatment. When using Cefalexin, the mean of wilted shoots was 20.5 and the severity of disease 16.3, while when using Gentamycin as an Abiotic, the mean of wilted shoots was 22.8 and severity of disease 17.6 which was the most effective compared with Copper sulphate treatment were wilted shoot was 31.8 and severity of disease 29.6. The application of tested chemical compounds as soil drench treatment led to a percentage of infection which ranged from16.4 to19.0 more effective than tuber treatment where the percentage of infection ranged from 18.4 to 20.1.</p> Hanan S , Mostafa , Hanan A. khalifaa, Wafaa M. Elsyd, Abdel-Ghaffar N.Y. Copyright (c) 2022 Hanan Mostafa Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Measurement of Radium and Radon Exhalation Rate in Marble Samples used in Al-Bayda City Market-Libya <p>The aim of the present study is to measure the activity concentrations of<sup> 226</sup>Ra, <sup>222</sup>Rn, the mass exhalation rate of <sup>222</sup>Rn, and the annual effective dose of radon in marble samples collected from Al-Bayda city local market –Libya. Samples were measured by using a low-background NaI (Tl) detector. The average activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup>Ra and <sup>222</sup>Rn were 72.57<sup>-1</sup> and 597.85 Bq.m<sup>-3</sup>.The radon exhalation rate in marble samples vary from 0.05-0.30<sup>-1</sup>.S<sup>-1</sup> with an average of 0.13<sup>-1</sup>.S<sup>-1</sup>. The annual effective dose of radon was calculated in samples under investigation. For most samples, the values were lower than the maximum permissible dose limits. It can be concluded that marble samples under investigation do not pose any radiological hazard to the dwellers of buildings used in their construction.</p> Jemila M. Ali, Suhayla A. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Jemila Mussa Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Adverse Effects of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Biochemical Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Libyan Agricultural Workers <p>Agricultural workers are in danger of being exposed to toxic substances such as pesticides. To estimate the individual danger of handling pesticides, the bio-monitoring of effects on agricultural workers is required. There has been no such research previously conducted among Libyan agricultural workers. This research was designed to study the biochemical parameters impacts of the pesticide contamination among Libyan agricultural workers at Aljebal Alakhtar, Libya. 45 blood samples were taken from male agriculture workers at Aljebal Alakhtar who had been exposed to pesticides in crop fields for a long time, while 25 blood samples were taken from a group of people who had not been exposed to pesticides (control). Kits were used to assess plasma ALT, AST, ALP, GST, SOD, total protein, albumin, globulin, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, urea, and creatinine. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate lipid peroxidation in serum. Using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector, the blood samples were tested for organochlorine pesticide residues (GC-ECD). In comparison to controls, workers had significantly higher SOD, GST, ALP, AST, and ALT activities, as well as higher levels of lipid profile, total bilirubin, creatinine, and urea, as well as significantly higher TBARS concentrations. Furthermore, long-term pesticide exposure was also related to reduceing total protein, albumin, and globulin, as well as reduced HDL-C levels. Pesticide exposure seems to influence various biochemical markers in general. These biomarkers appear to be indicative of pesticide-related deleterious effects in agricultural workers, indicating that they should be used for routine monitoring of impacts.</p> Khaled S. Alsalhen, Omalsaad E. I. Omar Copyright (c) 2022 Kaled Alsalhen Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Design and Implementation of a Libyan Salary Mobile Application using Flutter <p>Mobile applications have become widespread in many aspects of our daily lives. Many people do most of their work via their phones, such as online banking, shopping, etc. Due to many individuals being unaware of their salary details, this paper presents a design and implementation of a Libyan salary application” الراتب” using Flutter (cross-platform). The application allows users to know details of their salaries, including bonuses and deductions according to the salary schedule of each ministry or sector. The application currently contains salary schedules for ten ministries. The implementation consists of the following four steps: data collection of laws and payroll tables for each ministry to use as a local database for the salary application, design of friendly-use application screens using Flutter, integration of the mobile application with Firebase) backend platform by Google), and finally, preparing and deploying an Android and web version of the salary application. The results that were obtained from reviewers in the Google Play Store were satisfactory. There is an increasing local demand to add other ministries to the application. The citizens of the local community encourage providing such a service, which is considered the first of its kind. The application reached more than 100k downloads in less than a year, and the average rating is 4.5 out of 5 in the Google Play Store at the time of writing this paper.</p> Aeyman M. Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Aeyman Hassan Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of streptomyces rochi Biosurfactants on Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa <p>Fifty soil samples were collected from soils contaminated and uncontaminated with hydrocarbons. Six isolates belonging to<em> Streptomyces rochei</em> were diagnosed, 8% from contaminated soil and 6% from uncontaminated soil. Isolates were diagnosed depending on the study of 16s rDNA compared to standard isolates within the National Center for Biotechnology Information site. 28 smears of wounds and 12 smears of burns were collected, including <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolates (35.7%) and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (16.6%). The isolates of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Pseudomonas</em> <em>aeruginosa</em> showed multiple resistance to antibiotics, Oxacillin, Erythromycin, Nalidixic acid, and Tetracycline. Isolate <em>Streptomyces rochei</em> 19 showed the ability to produce biosurfactants that have antagonistic properties against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>. In addition, the biosurfactant production from<em> Streptomyces rochei</em> 19 were non-toxic to the potential growth of <em>Brassica</em> <em>oleracea</em> seeds at 1.5 and 50 mg/cm<sup>3</sup>. The biosurfactant was diagnosed as Lipopeptide using thin layer chromatography and GC-Mass technique.</p> Nadia H. Al-Healy, Essra Gh. Al-Sammak Copyright (c) 2022 Nadia Hussein Al-Healy Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Surgical Management of Traumatic Teat Fistulas in Crossbred Goats with Polyester Sutures <p>A total of six goats presented to University Veterinary Hospital (UVH), at Omar Al-Mukhtar University, with traumatic teat fistulas were selected for the present study. Upon preoperative evaluation, the mucosal and muscular layers were sutured separately by a simple continuous suture pattern using polyglactin 910. The skin edges were opposed by using braided and polybutilate-coated polyester sutures. Postoperative evaluation of the reconstructed teat was carried out by morphological evaluation and ultrasonographical evaluation. The quality of milk and milk ability reflected the effectiveness of the technique in regaining the functional capacity of the teat postoperatively. The surgical technique employed for the management of teat wounds with fistula was found to be less effective due to the encountered complications which could be due to the management practices, postoperative care, and the suture material.</p> Khaled. M. A. Hussin, Hamdi. F. Naji, Asma W. Saleh , Marwan Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Khaled Elhmri Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Forming Holes and Moistening Water Temperature on Some physical Quality Characteristics of Poultry Feed Pellets <p>The research aims to investigate the effect of feed manufacturing conditions on some significant physical traits of feed pellets for poultry feeding. The study was conducted using a factorial experiment of two factors that included the effect of the studied forming holes’ diameters at 2.5 and 4.5 mm, and the feed pellet moistening water temperature at 25 and 40 C°. Hence to find out their effect on the broken pellets, unbroken pellets, pellet expansion, and dust ratio. The results showed that increasing the diameter of the forming holes from 2.5 to 4.5 mm significantly affected the decrease in unbroken pellets, the increase in the percentage of broken pellets, pellet expansion ratio, and dust ratio. Increasing the temperature of the water from 25 to 40 C°, led the percentage of unbroken pellets to increase significantly and the percentage of broken pellets, and pellet expansion ratio decreased significantly. Whereas no significant effect on dust was recorded. The highest resistance to pellet breakage was 96.66%, the least percentage of unbroken pellets was of 3.38%, and the lowest dust content was 0.48%, with 2.5 mm holes and 40 C°. The lowest expansion ratio was 6.13% with 2.5 mm holes and 25 C°. It was concluded that the increase in the diameter of the forming holes led to an increase in the percentage of broken pellets, the percentage of expansion ratio, and the percentage of dust. Increasing temperature of the water led to an increase in the percentage of unbroken pellets, while there was no significant effect on the percentage of dust. We recommend increasing the diameter of the forming holes according to the age of the animals and using steam for moistening rather than hot water.</p> Basim Aboud Aabbas Copyright (c) 2022 باسم عباس Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Chemical Properties of the Refrigerated Fruits of the Apple Variety Golden Delicious <p>This study aims to identify the possibility of using calcium chloride solutions to maintain the best quality of the fruits of the Golden Delicious apple variety stored in cold storage and grown under the conditions of the AL-Marj region in Libya. It was conducted during the 2017 and 2018 planting seasons, and the treatments included spraying with two concentrations of calcium chloride, namely (0% and 0.06%) where the first spray was a month after the peak of flowering, and the spraying was repeated three times, one spray every 30 days, after harvesting, the fruits were immersed before storage in calcium chloride solutions at concentrations of (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%) and stored for (120 days) at a temperature of zero Celsius. The obtained results showed that the use of calcium chloride sprayed on the fruits better preserved their quality compared to the non-sprayed ones. The immersion in calcium chloride solutions also preserved the quality of the fruits by increasing its concentration within the limits of the concentrations included in this study, which makes us conclude the important role of calcium chloride in maintaining the quality of the fruits of this variety.</p> Entesar M. A. ben Rema Copyright (c) 2022 nor mohamed Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Pumpkin Leaves and Vitamin B12 on some Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Types of Legumes <p>The current study was conducted in the laboratories of the Department of Life Sciences / College of Science / University of Mosul to know the effect of treatment with aqueous extracts of pumpkin leaves, vitamin B12, and the mixture on some physiological characteristics of three types of legumes (chickpeas, cowpeas, and beans), where the research dealt with measuring the percentage of impregnation, the effectiveness of α-amylase enzyme, germination percentage, stem and root length, and their dry weight in seeds treated with pumpkin leaf extract, vitamin B12, and the mixture, the results gave an increase in the percentage of impregnation in all treatments and enzyme activity in most of the treatments. As for the percentage of germination, the average length of the plumule and the radicle, and their dry weights, they varied between increasing and decreasing, and the highest percentage of stimulation was in the bean seeds treated with the mixture at the concentration of 2%, which amounted to 48.34%, while the highest percentage decrease in the germination of the seeds was 21.05% and reached 6% in the bean seeds.The results also showed that the vitamin treatment caused an increase in the average length and dry weight of the plumule and seedlings of the three plant species (chickpeas, cowpea, and beans), and it was also noted when treating the tested species with the mixture that the vitamin was able to cover the harmful effect of the pumpkin extract and gave the stimulating effect to all tested traits.</p> Ban A. Idan , Wasan S. Hussain Copyright (c) 2022 Ban Abdul Aziz Idan , Wasan Saleh Hussain Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Water pH on the Efficiency of Eggshells in Removing Cr (VI) Ion from Water <p>Recently, various types of bio-adsorbents of animal or vegetable sources with minimal cost and less effort, which are obtained from domestic and agricultural waste, have been explored. In the present work, the possibility of using chicken eggshell powder as an adsorbent material to remove hexa-chromium metal from an aqueous solution was studied. Calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, and calcium phosphate are the primary components of eggshell powder, which in turn have a substantial and effective role in the adsorption process. In this study, 6 g of adsorbent (egg shells) was mixed with 3 mg of hexa-chromium per liter of pure water solution at a temperature of (40) °C and within the pH range (3, 6, 9). It was found that calcified eggshells have the ability to adsorb hexa-chromium ions, with a removal rate of 88.767% at pH 6 within 60 minutes.</p> Samia A. Elbahi Copyright (c) 2022 سامية الباهي Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000