Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences <div id="div-desktop"> <div class="row"> <div class="column1" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img src="" alt="" width="1349" height="1908" /></p> </div> <div class="column2" style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a <strong>peer-reviewed, open-access journal published free of charge</strong> by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Omar Al-Mukhtar University</strong></a><strong>. </strong>The journal was founded in 1991 and has been publishing articles in English covering a wide range of pure and applied sciences. It accepts original research articles and interesting case studies from anywhere in the world. <strong>In the journal’s electronic version, accepted articles are published after acceptance. In its hardcopy version, it is published quarterly. </strong></p> <p>The journal operates a <strong>double-blind peer review process</strong>, and the articles are made permanently available free of charge. The journal is funded by the university and does not charge submission or publication fees.</p> <p><strong>Aims</strong><strong> and Scope</strong><strong>: Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>focuses on promoting research in all fields of pure and applied sciences of local, regional and international interest.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h3> </h3> <p><span style="color: #000080;"> </span></p> </div> </div> </div> <div id="div-mobile"> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p><img class="mobile-image" src="" alt="" /></p> <p><strong>Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences </strong>is a peer-reviewed and open-access journal published by <strong><a href="">Omar Al-Mukhtar University</a></strong><strong>. </strong>It was founded in 1991 and has been publishing original English articles quarterly, covering a wide range of pure and applied science providing global researchers with a free publishing platform. MJSc publishes its research through its electronic and paper version printed upon request.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Scope: </strong>MJSc focuses on promoting sciences generated from<strong> Pure and Applied sciences</strong>, to integrate researches in all aspects. MJSc publishes <strong>Original Articles</strong>, in addition to interesting <strong>Case Reports</strong>.</p> <p> </p> </div> <div style="background-color: #fff;"> <p> </p> </div> </div> en-US <p>Copyright of the articles Published by Almukhtar Journal of Science (MJSc) is retained by the author(s), who grant MJSc a license to publish the article. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors and cite MJSc as original publisher. Also they accept the article remains published by MJSc website (except in occasion of a retraction of the article). </p> (Ali A. Bataw) (Abdulsalam Albukhari ) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Water Deficiency in Different Stages of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Growth <p>The experiment was conducted to assess the sensitivity of potato yield to different irrigation levels at different growth stages. Irrigation levels were determined as percentages (WI 100% as readily available water to the crop (RAW)), and for the rest of the treatments (WII 75%, WIII 50%), as they were applied separately to all four stages of crop growth i.e., vegetative (SI), tuber initiation (SII), tuber bulking SIII, and tuber maturation (SIV). The design of complete random sectors was adopted to perform the experiments. The results revealed that all the studied parameters: plant height (cm), vegetation plant weight (g), number of tubers per plant, tuber weight (g), tuber yield (ton/ha), and crop water productivity (kg/m<sup>3</sup>) varied among irrigation water levels at different stages of growth. It was found that the two stages, SII and SIII in potato crops, were more sensitive to deficit irrigation compared to other stages. According to the obtained results, in the case of water abundance conditions, the treatment WII SI can be applied to obtain the highest water crop productivity. In conditions of water scarcity, it becomes necessary to apply the treatment WIII SIII to obtain the highest crop water productivity.</p> Hussein Said. A. Taleb, Aymen A. Suleiman, Azmi M. Abu-Rayyan, Ahmed I. Ekhmaj, Mostafa A. Benzaghta Copyright (c) 2022 Mostafa Benzaghta Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Some Extensions and Generalizations of Kümmer's Third Summation Theorem <p>The motive of this research paper is to obtain explicit forms of certain extensions and generalizations of Kümmer's third summation theorem, which have not previously appeared in the literature, by using the summation theorem given by Rakha and Rathie (2011). The results derived in this paper are interesting and may be beneficial.</p> Mohammad. I. Qureshi, Ghazi Khammash, Aarif. H. Bhat, Javid Majid Copyright (c) 2022 Ghazi Khammash Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Production of High-Quality Tomato Seedlings in the Open Field Nurseries <p>The aim of the study is to produce tomatoes seedlings with good characteristics for summer and fall seedlings seasons in field nurseries by investigating three plant distances (10, 15, 20 cm), inaddition to scatteringand two levels of seed rate (100 and 150% of the recommended rates).The experiment was carried out using completely random plots using split plot designs in three replications, and the levels of each factor were randomly distributed within the plots withcultivation of two seedbeds. Planting tomato seedlings at a 20 cm distance can improve tomato seedlings' growth in open field nurseries. Finally, more researches are needed to determine the optimal seed rates as well as planting distances in open field nurseries production under Al-Jabal Al-Khader conditions.</p> Fatma A. H. Mohamed, Fayrouz A. A. Buojaylah, Alsunousi S. O. Masoud Copyright (c) 2022 Fayrouz Buojaylah Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bacterial Evaluation of Fresh Juices Sold in Cafes and Restaurants in the City of Benghazi, Libya <p>Food safety is a big challenge that concern all human communities and food production factories. The information on the bacterial evaluations of fresh natural juices in the city of Benghazi remained very limited and unclear. This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial contamination for two of the most popular selling freshly made juices, including mango and strawberry juices. The results of screening showed bacterial growth in 117 (91.41%) out of the total samples 128. The evaluation during the second season showed a higher bacterial growth rate of 96.55 %. The most predominant bacteria contaminating the targeted juices was <em>K</em><em>lebsiella pneumoniae,</em> with an average of (36.21%), followed by fecal<em> E</em><em>scherichia coli</em> (31.03%) for both juices. All the contaminated juices represented bacteria count out of the accepted value. Gram-negative pathogens showed resistance to limited antibiotics, including Amoxicillin, Amikacin, and Clarithromycin, whereas the Gram-positive bacteria showed higher resistance rates. This study concluded that, increase in bacterial diversity and bacterial count out of the accepted standard as well as the presence of fecal <em>E. coli</em> indicating a poor level of hygiene during the process of preparing juices, leading to the possibility of causing diseases and exposing people to food poisoning.</p> Ismaeel H. Bozakouk, Monia Ahmed H. BaLshikh, Mohamed M. Bumadian Copyright (c) 2022 Ismaeel Bozakouk Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Plasma-Polymerized Toluene Coatings by Microwave Discharge <p>Plasma- polymerized coatings were successfully applied on aluminum alloy, AA2024, surface for corrosion protection. The plasma polymerization process was carried out by low pressure microwave plasma at room temperature. The effect of microwave plasma power on the corrosion resistance of polymer coatings was investigated using the potentiodynamic polarization technique. As the microwave plasma power increased, the relative protective efficiency increased. Polymer coatings on alloy surfaces suppressed both anodic and cathodic reactions. The increment in protective efficiency was due to a higher degree of cross-linking in the coating. These findings suggest that the toluene polymer coatings provide a considerable protection barrier for aluminum alloys.</p> Suleiman Musa Elhamali Copyright (c) 2022 Suleiman Musa Elhamali Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Escherichia coli from Urine Isolates <p>Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are predominantly caused by <em>Escherichia coli</em> (<em>E. coli)</em>. Increasing <em>E. coli</em> resistance to antibiotics is a major concern worldwide. Since UTIs are often treated by trial and error, measuring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is important. However, there isn't much information about the rate of antimicrobial resistance to <em>E. coli</em> in the Libyan community. To determine rate of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of <em>E. coli</em> urine isolates, in Al-Bayda, Libya. A retrospective study, in which 104 <em>E. coli</em> urine isolates were conducted using the antimicrobial susceptibility profile (antibiogram) of six different antibiotics against <em>E. coli</em>, isolates, were collected from several medical laboratories. Out of the 104 <em>E. coli</em> urine isolates, the MDR was 39.4%. The overall frequency of isolates resistant to ceftriaxone was 62.5%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ)(54.8%), Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (47.11%), ciprofloxacin (26%), nitrofurantoin (18.26%), and levofloxacin (15.4%). Prevalence of AMR among Libyan outpatient urine-isolated <em>E. coli</em> was high, with a high incidence of multidrug-resistance. The knowledge of antibiotic resistance rates in the region helps inform empiric treatment of community-onset UTI and highlights the antibiotic resistance profile to clinicians.</p> Taher I. Mahmod Shailabi, Osama H. Aldeeb, Abdullah F. Almaedani, Elham O. Borwis, Samar A. Amer Copyright (c) 2022 Taher I. Mahmod Shailabi Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Phylogenetic Analysis of Libyan Thyme (Thymus Capitatus) Inferred from The Morphological Traits <p>The genetic diversity of wild thyme (<em>Thymus capitatus</em>) which growing in southern parts of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region, Libya was studied by using cluster analysis of morphological traits (flower measurements). This study was aimed to establish the phylogenetic relationships based on floral parameters among accessions of thyme (<em>T.capitatus</em>). The five populations (accessions) of Libyan thyme were assigned into two clusters (clades) at the critical distance value of 22%. The 1<sup>st</sup>cluster contained three populations that were included white-flowered, dotted white-flowered and violet-flowered accession, then the 1<sup>st</sup> cluster was divided into two sub-clusters by the critical distance value of 5%, the first sub-cluster contained two populations (white-flowered, dotted white-flowered accession). While, the second sub-cluster contained one population (violet-flowered accession). The 2<sup>nd</sup> cluster contained two populations which were purple-flowered and mosaic-flowered accessions. In conclusion, The flower measurements can be a preliminary tool to classify Libyan thyme (<em>T.capitatus</em>)<em>, </em>and floral parameters can be used in the classification of Libyan thyme accessions (populations).</p> Ezzudin S. Ali, Hesaien M. Mustafa, Khansa A. Omaar Copyright (c) 2022 حسين محمد الطرابلسي Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Distribution of Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Shahat’s Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis) Plantations, Al-JabalAl-Akhdar, Libya <p>The current study aims at investigating the spatial distribution of pine processionary moth (PPM) in parts of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region in Libya (in Shahat area). Two <em>Pinus halepensis</em> stands in the area (in Al-Mansurra and the ancient city of Cyrene) were chosen for field data collection. Growth parameters for pine trees including; tree height, crown height, diameter at breast height, stand density level, location within the stand, health condition, in addition to the observed number of PPM nests per tree were recorded. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis and variance analysis were applied to assess the relationship between obtained variables, and evaluate growth conditions for both stands. Results revealed relatively better growth conditions at Al-Mansurra site compared to Cyrene site. Moreover, PPM nests occurrence was positively correlated with trees growing isolated or on the stand edge (r = 0.54, P value &lt;.001), and negatively correlated with tree height (r = - 0.4, P value &lt;.001) emphasizing more dispersal rate among young pine trees. Crown height, dbh, and tree’s health condition showed no significant effect on PPM spread in the area. In-depth investigations of the population dynamics of PPM are highly recommended to provide insights into their spatial distribution in the region. </p> Attia Alsanousi, Younes Hamad Sheip Copyright (c) 2022 Attia Alsanousi, Younes Hamad-Sheip , Abdulraoff Alzunni Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sensitivity of Some Apple Varieties Grown in Regions of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar to Apple Scab Disease <p>The study aimed to know the extent of infection of apple varieties grown in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar regions with apple scab disease during the seasons 2018-2019. The results showed the incidence of the disease was higher in August in Al-Bayda, Shahat, and Al-Marj, at a rate of 73, 72, and 61.7%, respectively, while it was higher in September in the regions of Al-Kuf and Qandula, at a rate of 79.6, and 73.2%, respectively. The study showed the highest infection rate was among the local variety, with a rate of 86% and a severity of 41%, followed by Starking variety, with 77% in 2018 season. As for 2019 season, the Local variety was the most infected, with a rate of 80% and a severity at 43%. The study showed the relationship between the percentage of the disease and its severity with the environmental conditions, results showed that the relationship between the incidence of disease and temperature in Al-Bayda was weak (r = 0.15), as well as between the severity of the disease and relative humidity (r = 0.081). We conclude that the cultivars in the study area are sensitive to the disease, and Golden Delicious cultivar is more susceptible to infection.</p> Majuldeen F. Albarani, Nwara A. Mohamed, Mohammed A. Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Majuldeen Albarani Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison Study of Red Blood Cells and their Characteristics in Female Camels and their Male Calves in Libya <p>The study was conducted to comparison study of red blood cells and their characteristics in female camels and their male calves in Libya in the central region of Libya for a period of one year on three camels, male calves were selected according to birth. (MCH) and (MCHC) were evaluated in the blood of the mothers, and they were found to be significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than in the mothers. (Hb) and (MCH) for both mothers and calves increased significantly (P&lt;0.05) at birth during the seasons. Whereas, the spring and summer seasons (MCH) in calves were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than the mothers. The summer RBCs were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher for mothers than for calves. (Hb) and (MCV) for both were significantly higher in autumn (P&lt;0.05) compared to other seasons. During the spring and summer seasons, the MCHC in the mothers was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher than in the calves. (PCV), (MCV), (MCH), and (MCHC) of mothers at birth were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher than calves, and higher for both during different months. The highest value of (MCV) for the two animals during the eighth month was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than the values of the months excluding delivery. Also, the (MCH) of the calves was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) during the fifth month than that of the mothers. The value of (MCHC) increased in calves than mothers from the fifth month until the end of the study. We conclude from the foregoing that the calves adapt to the environment and keep pace with the adult animals after their fifth month.</p> Tarek A.S. Altief, Moneam A. Amir, Salem A. Sabir, Salem A. Amaizik Copyright (c) 2022 Moneam Amir Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Seedling Date and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Local Red Onion Variety Allium cepa L <p>The experiment was carried out in the General Commission for Agricultural Research, Syria. during the seasons 2019/2020 in order to investigate the effect of seedling date and plant density on the growth and yield of the local red onions variety and getting the bulbs directly without going through the stage of bulblets. Onion seeds were planted on 3 dates, with an interval of two weeks between dates (15/9, 30/9, 15/10). The seedlings were planted in the field on these dates (30/10, 15/11, 30/11) and with 3 plant densities (40, 20, 14 plant/m<sup>2</sup>). The results indicated that the first date had a significant difference in indicators (height of plants, number of leaves, bulb weight, onion diameter, productivity (68.69 cm, 7.89 leaf/plant, 199.3 g, 7.87 cm, 2130 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively). As for the plant density, the plant density (14 plant/m2) had a significant difference to all studied indicators (69.15 cm, 7.66 leaf/plant, 238.1 g, 7.74 cm, 1667 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively). As for the interaction there was a significant difference of the first planting date with third plant density, with the possibility of adopting this shared treatment in shortening the life cycle of onions of the local red variety.</p> Rawaa M. M. Albabilie, Osama H. Alabdalla, Roula G. Bathoush, Mostafa M. Alozon Copyright (c) 2022 روعة الببيلي Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Aqueous Extracts of some Libyan Medicinal Plants Against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum In Vitro <p>The study was conducted to test the effect of aqueous extracts of the leaves of ten medicinal plants growing naturally in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region – northeast Libya, which include: Alhagi <em>(Alhagi camelrum)</em>, Mugwort <em>(Artimesia herba-alba)</em>, Everlasting <em>(Helichrysum stoechas)</em>, Chamomile<em> (Anthemis noblis)</em>, Stinkweed<em> (Peganum harmala)</em>, Nettle <em>(Urtica dioica)</em>, Rosemary <em>(Rosmarinus officinalis)</em>, Rue <em>(Ruta graveolens)</em>, Geranium <em>(Pelargonium graveolens)</em> and Castor <em>(Risinus communis)</em> using poisoned plate method in PSA medium against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum caused seeds’ rot and seedlings damping-off. The results showed a significant difference in inhibition effectiveness in all extracts against the tested fungus. Among all plants, <em>H. stoechas</em> was the most effective (88.4%), followed by <em>U. dioica</em> (79.1%), then <em>P. harmala</em> (78.3%). Chemical detections showed that the extracts of <em>H. stoechas, P. harmala</em>, and <em>U. dioica</em> contained some antioxidants: phenols, flavonoids, and tannins. Based on these results application of plant extracts can be considered a beneficial strategy for controlling fungal plant diseases.</p> Nisreen M. Hypa, Zahra I. El-Gali Copyright (c) 2022 Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali, زهرة الجالي Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000