Prevalence of Microalbuminuria Among Diabetic Male Patients Attending Bergan General Hospital / South of Libya


  • Mabroukah Mohamad Al-Zwayi Department of Medical Laboratories, Faculty of Engineering and Technical Sciences, Sebha Univer-sity, Brak A
  • Ahmed Hussein Suleiman Department of Medical Laboratories, Faculty of Engineering and Technical Sciences, Sebha Univer-sity, Brak A
  • Salah Masoud Omar Department of Medical Laboratories, Faculty of Engineering and Technical Sciences, Sebha Univer-sity, Brak A



Diabetes, Kidney Failure, Diabetes Complications, Microalbumin, Creatinine in Blood and Urine


Diabetes mellitus has become increasingly common worldwide, with many serious complications. Diabetic nephropathy is one such complication that affects the kidney and leads to end-stage renal failure worldwide. Microalbuminuria represents an abnormal elevation in urine albumin levels, which is an early marker of diabetic nephropathy. It is likely to be found in one-third or more of diabetic patients. Early recognition of microalbuminuria in diabetic nephropathy permits successful therapeutic intervention and significant postponement of terminal renal failure. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the potential risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended Bergin General Hospital-AL-Shati, Southern Libya, as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. 75 men were recruited for this study: 50 of them had type 2 diabetes, and 25 men were healthy and used as a control.  Morning fasting blood samples were collected from all of them to estimate the concentration of plasma glucose and creatinine, and first morning urine samples were collected for microalbinurea and creatinin estimation. The results show that 48% of the diabetic patients attending Bergin Hospital had Microalbuminuria, and 8% had Microalbuminuria. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of microalbumin and both duration of diabetes and the age of diabetic patients, r value was 0.32, 0.39, and the P-value = 0.034, 0.008, respectively. In addition, a positive correlation was found with the concentration of creatinine in both blood and urine where the value of r = 0.59, 0.313, and P-value = 0.000 and 0.033 respectively. In conclusion, about 48 % of diabetics in this study are at risk of developing kidney disease due to their high microalbumin level. Early diagnosis and monitoring of this condition could prevent nephropathy in this group of patients. Also, for 8 %, the risk is higher and gradually increases with the length of time they have diabetes.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Agaba, E., Agaba, P., & Puepet, F. (2004). Prevalence of microalbuminuria in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic pa-tients in Jos Nigeria. African journal of medicine and medical sciences, 33(1), 19-22. DOI:

Al Busaidi, N., Shanmugam, P., & Mano-haran, D. (2019). Diabetes in the Mid-dle East: government health care poli-cies and strategies that address the growing diabetes prevalence in the Middle East. Current diabetes reports, 19(2), 8. DOI:

Al-Adsani, A. (2012). Risk factors associated with albuminuria in Kuwaiti adults with type 2 diabetes. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, 23(4), 860. DOI:

Aldukhayel, A. (2017). Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy among Type 2 diabetic patients in some of the Arab countries. International journal of health scienc-es, 11(1), 1.

Ambayiram, A. V., Kalyani, P., Felix, A., & Govindarajan, P. (2016). Prevalence of microalbuminuria among type II diabe-tes mellitus patients in urban Chidam-baram. Saudi J Med, 1(3), 57-62.

Amin, R. F., El Bendary, A. S., Ezzat, S. E., & Mohamed, W. S. (2019). Serum Ferri-tin level, microalbuminuria and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Re-views, 13(3), 2226-2229. DOI:

Farahat, T. M., Elsaeed, G. K., Gazareen, S. S., & Elsayed, T. I. (2014). Prevalence of proteinuria among type 2 diabetic patients in Menoufia governorate, Egypt. Menoufia Medical Journal, 27(2), 363. DOI:

Ghosh, S., Lyaruu, I., & Yeates, K. (2012). Prevalence and factors associated with microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic pa-tients at a diabetes clinic in northern Tanzania. African Journal of Diabetes Medicine [Internet], 20(2).

Hofsø, D., Jenssen, T., Bollerslev, J., Røislien, J., Hager, H., & Hjelmesæth, J. (2009). Anthropometric characteris-tics and type 2 diabetes in extremely obese Caucasian subjects: a cross-sectional study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 86(1), e9-e11. DOI:

Idonije, B. O., Festus, O., & Oluba, O. M. (2011). Plasma glucose, creatinine and urea levels in type 2 diabetic patients attending a Nigerian teaching hospital. Research journal of medical sciences, 5(1), 1-3. DOI:

Jarrett, R., Keen, H., Boyns, D., Chlouverakis, C., & Fuller, J. (1969). The concomi-tants of raised blood sugar: studies in newly-detected hyperglycaemics. I. A comparative assessment of neurologi-cal functions in blood sugar groups. Guy's Hospital reports, 118(2), 237-246.

Jayasri, M., Gunasekaran, S., Radha, A., & Mathew, T. (2008). Anti-diabetic effect of Costus pictus leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Diabetes Metab, 16(3), 117-122.

Karar, T., Alniwaider, R. A. R., Fattah, M. A., Al Tamimi, W., Alanazi, A., & Qureshi, S. (2015). Assessment of mi-croalbuminuria and albumin creatinine ratio in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine, 6(Suppl 1), S89. DOI:

Khadka, B., Tiwari, M. L., Timalsina, B., Risal, P., Gupta, S., & Acharya, D. (2018). Prevalence and factors associ-ated with microalbuminuria among type 2 diabetic patients: A hospital based study. Age (years), 50(107), 26.28.

King, H., Aubert, R. E., & Herman, W. H. (1998). Global burden of diabetes, 1995–2025: prevalence, numerical es-timates, and projections. Diabetes care, 21(9), 1414-1431. DOI:

Lutale, J. J. K., Thordarson, H., Abbas, Z. G., & Vetvik, K. (2007). Microalbuminu-ria among type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients of African origin in Dar Es Sa-laam, Tanzania. BMC nephrology, 8(1), 1-8. DOI:

Maharjan, B., Bhandary, S., Risal, P., Sedhain, A., & Gautam, M. (2010). Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminu-ria in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council.

Mogensen, C. (1984). Microalbuminuria pre-dicts clinical proteinuria and early mor-tality in maturity-onset diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine, 310(6), 356-360. DOI:

Organization, W. H. (2006). Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and in-termediate hyperglycaemia: report of a WHO/IDF consultation.

Parving, H.-H., Oxenbøll, B., Svendsen, P. A., Christiansen, J. S., & Andersen, A. (1982). Early detection of patients at risk of developing diabetic nephropa-thy. A longitudinal study of urinary al-bumin excretion. European Journal of Endocrinology, 100(4), 550-555. DOI:

Ramidha, V., Sebastin, N., & Bhavani, N. (2019). Micro albuminuria in type 2 DM-prevalence and its association with microvascular complications. In-dian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology, 6(1), 93-97. DOI:

Satchell, S., & Tooke, J. (2008). What is the mechanism of microalbuminuria in di-abetes: a role for the glomerular endo-thelium? Diabetologia, 51(5), 714-725. DOI:

Sachdev, Y.. (2008). Diabetic Nephropathy. In Y. Sachdev (Ed.), Clinical Endocrinol-ogy and diabetes mellitus. JAYPEE brothers (1st ed., pp. 1000–1007) DOI:

Sigdel, M., Rajbhandari, N., Basnet, S., Nagi-la, A., Basnet, P., & Tamrakar, B. (2008). Microalbuminuria among type-2 diabetes mellitus patients in Pokhara, Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J, 10(4), 242-245.

Thakur, S. K., Dhakal, S. P., Parajuli, S., Sah, A. K., Nepal, S. P., & Paudel, B. D. (2019). Microalbuminuria and its risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, 17(1), 61-65. DOI:

Tobe, S. W., McFarlane, P. A., & Naimark, D. M. (2002). Microalbuminuria in diabe-tes mellitus. Cmaj, 167(5), 499-503.

Udenze, I., Azinge, E., Adesina, P., Egbuagha, E., Onyenekwu, C., Ayodele, O., & Adizua, U. The Prevalence of Metabol-ic Syndrome in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes at the Lagos UniversityTeach-ing Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.

Waghmare, P., & Goswami, K. (2016). Mi-croalbuminuria: A Mere Marker or An Ominous Sign? The Journal of the As-sociation of Physicians of India, 64(3), 61-65.

Zakerkish, M., Shahbazian, H. B., Shahbazian, H., Latifi, S. M., & Aleali, A. M. (2013). Albuminuria and its correlates in type 2 diabetic patients. Iranian journal of kidney diseases, 7(4), 268



How to Cite

Al-Zwayi م. م., Suleiman أ. ح. ., & Omar ص. م. (2021). Prevalence of Microalbuminuria Among Diabetic Male Patients Attending Bergan General Hospital / South of Libya. Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences, 36(1), 98–105.



Research Articles


Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.