Genetic Mutations in the LTR Region of SRLV Viruses in Capra ibex


  • Esadk A. Erhouma Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Alzintan University, Alzintan – Libya.,Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Alzintan University, Alzintan – Libya.



Selected:Lentivirus, SRLV, LTR, TATA , Box, Sequence


The lentivirus (genus of the retroviruses family) can integrate a significant amount of viral cDNA into the DNA of the host cell and can efficiently infect dividing cells. They are able to spill over from their natural host species to induce new infections and pathologies among hosts of new species. This defines the crossing of species barrier that originates emergent viruses causing emergent diseases. The transmission of lentiviruses was observed between different species (domestic & wild). The small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) transmission is accompanied by genetic mutations in the genome of the virus. The study investigated the genetic mutations that accompany the infection and adaptation of SRLV to the new host. Genetic mutations were studied by amplifying and sequencing the Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) region.Blood samples were taken from Capra ibex living in the French Alps. Sera were tested using a commercially available ELISA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated on a Ficoll gradient were cultured in a macrophage differentiation medium to obtain monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) monolayers for virus isolation. DNAs from non-cultured PBMC were used as templates for the PCR amplification of proviral DNA. PCR products (270 nt) were cloned and sequenced. Sequences were analysed using ClustalW.The alignments of the LTR fragment show three types of nucleotide mutations: replacement, addition, and deletion of nucleotide. Sequence analysis shows that the TATA box and the poly (A) site were highly conserved. The divergence of the LTR region between sequences obtained varied by 0.3 - 5.7 %. These differences were also shown by the phylogenetic tree. It can be seen that proviruses from the Capra ibex sequences are a closely related group, quite distinct from the reference sequence.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Blatti-Cardinaux, L., Sanjosé, L., Zahno, M.-L., Zanoni, R., Reina, R., & Bertoni, G. (2016). Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus. Journal of general virology, 97(7), 1699-1708. DOI:

Corbet, S., Müller-Trutwin, M. C., Versmisse, P., Delarue, S., Ayouba, A., Lewis, J., Brunak, S., Martin, P., Brun-Vezinet, F., & Simon, F. (2000). env sequences of simian immunodeficiency viruses from chimpanzees in Cameroon are strongly related to those of human immunodeficiency virus group N from the same geographic area. Journal of virology, 74(1), 529-534. DOI:

Erhouma, E., Guiguen, F., Chebloune, Y., Gauthier, D., Lakhal, L. M., Greenland, T., Mornex, J. F., Leroux, C., & Alogninouwa, T. (2008). Small ruminant lentivirus proviral sequences from wild ibexes in contact with domestic goats. Journal of general virology, 89(6), 1478-1484. DOI:

Felsenstein, J. (2002). PHYLIP: Phylogeny Inference Package, ver. 3.6 a3.

Gayo, E., Cuteri, V., Polledo, L., Rossi, G., García Marín, J. F., & Preziuso, S. (2018). Genetic Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses Detected in Spanish Assaf Sheep with Different Mammary Lesions. Viruses, 10(6), 315. DOI:

Hirsch, V., Olmsted, R., & Murphy-Corb, M. (1989). Pyrcell and Johnson P. An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-2. Nature, 339, 389-392. DOI:

Jaime, M. F. V., Redko, F., Muschietti, L. V., Campos, R. H., Martino, V. S., & Cavallaro, L. V. (2013). In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants. Virology journal, 10(1), 245. DOI:

Mendiola, W. P., Tórtora, J. L., Martínez, H. A., García, M. M., Cuevas-Romero, S., Cerriteño, J. L., & Ramírez, H. (2019). Genotyping based on the LTR region of small ruminant lentiviruses from naturally infected sheep and goats from Mexico. BioMed Research International, 2019. DOI:

Perriere, G., & Gouy, M. (1996). WWW-query: an on-line retrieval system for biological sequence banks. Biochimie, 78(5), 364-369. DOI:

Rihn, S. J., Foster, T. L., Busnadiego, I., Aziz, M. A., Hughes, J., Neil, S. J., & Wilson, S. J. (2017). The envelope gene of transmitted HIV-1 resists a late interferon gamma-induced block. Journal of virology, 91(7). DOI:

Saitou, N., & Nei, M. (1987). The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 4(4), 406-425.

Saltarelli, M., Querat, G., Konings, D. A., Vigne, R., & Clements, J. E. (1990). Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of molecular clones of CAEV which generate infectious virus. Virology, 179(1), 347-364. DOI:

Thompson, J. (1997). Gibson TJ Plewniak F., Jeanmougin F. and Higgins DG (1997). The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 4876-4882. DOI:

Yang, F.-C., Kuang, W.-D., Li, C., Sun, W.-W., Qu, D., & Wang, J.-H. (2015). Toll-Interacting Protein Suppresses HIV-1 Long-Terminal-Repeat-Driven Gene Expression and Silences the Post-Integrational Transcription of Viral Proviral DNA. PloS one, 10(4), e0125563. DOI:




How to Cite

Erhouma , E. A. . (2020). Genetic Mutations in the LTR Region of SRLV Viruses in Capra ibex. Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences, 35(2), 139–145.



Research Articles


Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.