Determining the Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Springs and Groundwater Wells in the Northeastern Region of Libya


  • Ifdial O. El Awamy Department of Plant Protection, Pesticide Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Almukhtar University, Elbeida-Libya
  • Ruqayah. A. Abduljalil Department of Plant Protection, Pesticide Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Almukhtar University, Elbeida-Libya
  • Omukalthum A. Abduljalil Department of Plant Protection, Pesticide Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Almukhtar University, Elbeida-Libya



Heavy Metals, Northeastern Region, Springs and Groundwater Wells


This study was designed to detect heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu) in several springs and groundwater wells in the northeastern region of Libya. Samples were collected from different regions in both seasons (dry and wet). An atomic absorption spectrophotometry equipped with Slotted Tube Atomic Trap (STAT) was used. The limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 0.008 to 0.03 μg mL-1, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 0.02 to 0.09 μg mL-1. % RSD (relative standard deviations) ranged between 0.0001 to 0.329%. Results showed the presence of heavy metal residues in the regions in two seasons (dry-wet) during the study in some springs and groundwater wells. The zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and Copper (Cu) values were below permitted limits, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), Libyan National Center for Standardization (LNCSM), and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Lead (Pb) in the dry season was much higher than the wet season in accordance with WHO and LNCSM. The other values were below permissable limits according to WHO,  LNCSM, and FAO. This study’s results show the presence of dangerous levels of lead during the dry season in the groundwater wells on SahlAlmarj I, Alabyar III. Overall, the investigation of chemical and agricultural fertilizers is an effective method of monitoring the quality of drinking water. Such investigations are needed to identify possible sources of contamination of storage tanks and pipelines to ensure the delivery of safe drinking water to end-users.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


الكلورينية والعناصر الثقيلة في بعض الخضروات والفاكهة في أسواق المنطقة الشرقية - ليبيا, رسالة الماجستير (الدرجة العليا) في وقاية النبات (كيمياءالمبيدات), جامعة عمر المختار, كلية الزراعة, قسم وقاية النبات.ص1-98

Abdolgader, R. E., Hussain, R. A., Hasan, S. M., & Agoub, A. A. (2013). Quantitative Determination of Cd and Pb in Tissues and Organs of Chickens Raised in El-Jabel Alakhder Region—Libya. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 4(08), 763. DOI:

Ahmad, J. U., & Goni, M. A. (2010). Heavy metal contamination in water, soil, and vegetables of the industrial areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 166(1-4), 347-357. DOI:

Ahmed, M., Matsumoto, M., Ozaki, A., Thinh, N. V., & Kurosawa, K. (2019). Heavy metal contamination of irrigation water, soil, and vegetables and the difference between dry and wet seasons near a multi-industry zone in Bangladesh. Water, 11(3), 583. DOI:

APHA. (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, American Water Works association, Water Environment Federation, Washington(5), 4-12.

Benti, G. (2014). Assessment of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with Awashi River in selected farms around Adama town, Ethiopia. African journal of environmental science and technology, 8(7), 428-434. DOI:

Bhaskar, C. V., Kumar, K., & Nagendrappa, G. (2010). Assessment of heavy metals in water samples of certain locations situated around Tumkur, Karnataka, India. Journal of Chemistry, 7(2), 349-352. DOI:

Boran, M., & Altınok, I. (2010). A review of heavy metals in water, sediment and living organisms in the Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 10(4). DOI:

Chang, M. B., Jen, C. H., Wu, H. T., & Lin, H. Y. (2003). Investigation on the emission factors and removal efficiencies of heavy metals from MSW incinerators in Taiwan. Waste Management & Research, 21(3), 218-224. DOI:

Deniseger, J., Erickson, L., Austin, A., Roch, M., & Clark, M. (1990). The effects of decreasing heavy metal concentrations on the biota of Buttle Lake, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Water research, 24(4), 403-416. DOI:

Dike, N., Ezealor, A., & Oniye, S. (2004). Concentration of Pb, Cu, Fe and Cd during the dry season in river Jakara, Kano, Nigeria. Chemclass Journal, 1, 78-81.

Ferner, D. (2001). Toxicity, heavy metals. Med. J, 2(5), 1.

Gaur, V. K., Gupta, S. K., Pandey, S., Gopal, K., & Misra, V. (2005). Distribution of heavy metals in sediment and water of river Gomti. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 102(1-3), 419-433. DOI:

Ghanem, M., Samhan, S., Carlier, E., & Ali, W. (2010). Groundwater pollution due to pesticides and heavy metals in North West Bank. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2(04), 429-434. DOI:

Hunt, D. T. E., & Wilson, A. L. (1986). The chemical analysis of water: general principles and techniques (Vol. 2). Royal Society of Chemistry.

Jamshaid, M., Khan, A. A., Ahmed, K., & Saleem, M. (2018). Heavy metal in drinking water its effect on human health and its treatment techniques–a review. International Journal of Biosciences, 12(4), 223-240. DOI:

Kabata-Pendias, A. (2010). Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC press. DOI:

Macklin, M., Brewer, P., Hudson-Edwards, K., Bird, G., Coulthard, T., Dennis, I., Lechler, P., Miller, J., & Turner, J. (2006). A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metal mining. Geomorphology, 79(3-4), 423-447. DOI:

Malassa, H., Al-Qutob, M., Al-Khatib, M., & Al-Rimawi, F. (2013). Determination of different trace heavy metals in ground water of South West Bank/Palestine by ICP/MS. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4(08), 818. DOI:

Martin, C. W. (2000). Heavy metal trends in floodplain sediments and valley fill, River Lahn, Germany. Catena, 39(1), 53-68. DOI:

Nie, N. H., Bent, D. H., & Hull, C. H. (1970). SPSS: Statistical package for the social sciences.

Phuong, N. M., Kang, Y., Sakurai, K., Iwasaki, K., Kien, C. N., Van Noi, N., & Son, L. T. (2010). Levels and chemical forms of heavy metals in soils from Red River Delta, Vietnam. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 207(1-4), 319-332. DOI:

Prabu, P. (2009). Impact of heavy metal contamination of Akaki River of Ethiopia on soil and metal toxicity on cultivated vegetable crops. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 8(9), 12-24.

Quina, M. J., Santos, R. C., Bordado, J. C., & Quinta-Ferreira, R. M. (2008). Characterization of air pollution control residues produced in a municipal solid waste incinerator in Portugal. Journal of hazardous materials, 152(2), 853-869. DOI:

Rahman, M., Ziku, A., Choudhury, T. R., Ahmad, J., & Mottaleb, M. (2015). Heavy metals contaminations in irrigated vegatables, soils, river water: A compressive study Chilmari, Kurigram, Bangladesh. Int J Environ Ecol Family Urb Stud, 5(5), 29-42.

Reza, R., & Singh, G. (2010). Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 7(4), 785-792. DOI:

Roy, K., Ansari, M. S., Karim, M. R., Das, R., Mallick, B., & Gain, A. K. (2015). Irrigation water quality assessment and identification of river pollution sources in Bangladesh: Implications in policy and management. J Water Resour Hydro Eng, 4(4), 303-317. DOI:

Sin, S., Chua, H., Lo, W., & Ng, L. (2001). Assessment of heavy metal cations in sediments of Shing Mun River, Hong Kong. Environment international, 26(5-6), 297-301. DOI:

Suthar, S., Nema, A. K., Chabukdhara, M., & Gupta, S. K. (2009). Assessment of metals in water and sediments of Hindon River, India: Impact of industrial and urban discharges. Journal of hazardous materials, 171(1-3), 1088-1095. DOI:

Tarla, D., Bantar, V., Mfopou, M., Fotio, D., & Fontem, D. (2018). Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Surface Waters of the Western Highlands of Cameroon. pathways, 1(45-46), 2-8. DOI:

Yadav, A., Yadav, P. K., & Shukla, D. (2013). Investigation of heavy metal status in soil and vegetables grown in urban area of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(9), 1-7.



How to Cite

El Awamy, I. O. ., Abduljalil , R. A. ., & Abduljalil, O. A. . (2020). Determining the Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Springs and Groundwater Wells in the Northeastern Region of Libya. Al-Mukhtar Journal of Sciences, 35(4), 326–338.



Research Articles


Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.