Competitive effects of wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum.L on The growth and yield of wheat Triticum Durum. In Jabal Akhdaar (Libya)
Keywords:wild Radish , Raphanus raphanistrum.L , wheat Triticum Durum. , Jabal Akhdaar (Libya)
The wild radish weed was commonly distributed in most wheat crop fields within Al-Gabal Al-Akhdaar Libya and responsible for reduced the crop yield by 8.35%. For this reason this study was performed in the East area of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar at Elgobaa governorate by using additive technique of competitive determination using constant number of wild radish seedling at the rates of 24\m2 and 48\m2 as medium and high, density respectively compared with pure farming. Results showed that the competitive coefficient was significant either within species or between the two species at different growth stages under medium and high competitive rates. The loss of yield capacity calculated by the coefficient of damage (q) was significantly increased with increasing levels of weed competition at all growth stages compared with pure farming. The (q) values were 0.46 kg\m2 and 3.84 kg\m-2 after one and four months from planting time at medium competitive rate, while at high rate the q values were 1.8 kg\m-2 and 5.4 kg\m2 after same period from planting, respectively. Moreover, the competitive by wild radish reflected on decreasing the grain yield from 4.63 t\ha-1 to 1.62 t\ha-1 and straw yield from 20.98 t\h-1 to 5.62 t\h-1 respectively. Finally the competition by wild radish weed in wheat crop fields were signiticantive or\and qualitative characteristics of wheat by 42.33, 27% and 51% for grains yield, straw yield and seed index, respectively as compares by pure farming.
اللجنة الشعبية العامة المساعدة لشؤون الإنتاج (2002م) ، مساحة الأراضي المزروعة بالحبوب بالجماهيرية .
تقارير الموازنة الاستيرادية بالجماهيرية (2002م) ، التقرير السنوي لموازنة استيراد المحاصيل الزراعية .
علي علي الخشن ، أحمد أنور عبد الباري ، وأمين أمين قاسم (1991م) إنتاج محاصيل القمح ، من صفحة 17-102 . منشورات جويدة السفير - الإسكندرية . مصر .
Alex, J. F; R. Cayouette and G. A, Mulligan (1992). Common and botanical names of weeds. In Canada publication. 1397b.
Research. Branch. Ahriculture. Canada. Ottawa. No 113pp.
Anonumous. (1988). Grain inspection. Handbook book . Wheat Us. Dep. Agric. Ped. Grain. Inspect. Serv.
Belles, W. S. (1989). Control of broadleaf weeds in winter wheat with dicamba sulfonyl urea combinations. Res. Prog. Rep, west weed. Sci. soc:356-357.
Berti, A and G, Zanin (1994). Density equivalent; A method for forecasting yield loss coused by mixed weed populations. Weed. Res. 34:327-332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1994.tb02001.x
Brain, P and R, Cousens (1990). The effect of weed distribution on prekictions of yield loss. Journal of Applied Ecology. 27:735-742. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2404315
Cheam, A. H (1986) Seed production and seed dormancy in wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum.L and some possibilities for improving control. Weed. Res. 26:405-413. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1986.tb00724.x
Cousens, R (1985) A simple modle relating yield loss to weed density. Am. Appl. Boil. 117:239-252. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1985.tb01567.x
Cousens, P, Brain; J, T, O'Donovan and P, A. O'Sullivan (1987). The use of biologically realistic to describe the effect of weed density and relative time of emergence on crop yield. Weed. Sci. 35:720-725. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500060872
Cousens, S, R. Moss, W, G. Cussans and J, B. Wilson (1987) Modeling weed populations in cereals. Revw of weed. Sci. 3:93-112.
Cousens, (1991) Aspects of design, analysis and interpretation of competition (interference) experiments. Weed techno. 5:664-673. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0890037X00027524
Cousens and M, Mortimer (1995) In dynamics of weed populations. Cambridge. Great Britain Cambridge university press pp21-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511608629
Derkson, D. A, G, P. Laford, A, G. Thomas, H, A. Loeppky and C, Swanton (1993) Impact of agronomic practices on weed communities tillage systems. Weed. Sci. 41:409-417. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500052127
Doylle, C. J. (1991) Mathematical models in weed management. Crop. Protection 10 (6) :432-444. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(91)80130-8
Firbank, L. G and R, A. Watkinson (1985). On the analysis of competition within two species mixtures of plants. Journal of Applied Ecology. 22:503-517. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2403181
Hume, L (1985) Crop losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) as determined using weeded and non weeded quadrates. Weed Sci 33:734-740. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S004317450008320X
Julien, M. H (1987) Biological control of weeds, a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds (ed) 2nd Edition. CAB International, England. Pp. 64-108.
Keith, H. G. (ed) (1965) A preliminary check list of Libyan flora. United Middle East Executives. Ltd London England.
Kropff, M. J and C, J. Spitters (1991) A simple modele of crop loss early observation on relative leaf area of the weeds. Weed Res. 31:97-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1991.tb01748.x
Kropff, M. J and L, P. Lotz (1992) Optimizing of weed management systems, the role of ecological models of interplant competition. Weed techno. 6:462-467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0890037X00035065
Kunin, W. E. (1993) Six and the single mustard population density and pollinator behavior affects on seed-set. Ecology. 74:2145-2160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1940859
Laford, G. P (1994) Effects of row spacing, seeding rate and nitrogen on yield of barley and wheat under zero-till-management. Can. J. plant Sci. 74:703-711. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps94-127
Lotz, L. P. J. M. Kropff, Bos J. Wallinga and H, J. Groeneveld (1993) Techniques to estimate relative leaf area and cover of weeds in crop for yield loss predictions. Weed Res. 33:269-27.
Lotz (1994) Techniques to estimate relative leaf area and cover of weeds in crops for yield prediction-weed-Res. 34:167-175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1994.tb01984.x
Lutman, P. W. (1992) Prediation of the competitive effects of weeds on yield of several spring sown arable crops. Weed abst, 42:00165.
Meister, R. T (1994) Weed control manual Meister publishing company, Wiloughby, OH. P 220.
Ontario, Ministry of Agriculture and Food (1993) Guide to weed control. Queens printer, ON. Publ. 75, 216pp.
Radhakrishnan, V. V. P, G. Kumar and a. Oommen. (1991) Nondestructive method of leaf area determination in (Benincasa hips). Indian J. Agric. Sci 6(1):59-64.
Radosevish, S. R. and M, L, Roush (1990) The role of competition in agriculture. Pages 341-363 in J, B. Grace and competition. Academic press, Inc. San Diego. California. USA. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-294452-9.50020-5
Roger, G. P. (ed) (1994) Agricultural field experiment (design and analysis) Oregon state University Press.
Snedecor, G. W. and W. C. Cochran (ed) (1967). Statistical methods 6th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press.
Steward, F. C. (ed) (1969). Analysis of growth. Plant physiology. Vol VA Academic press. New York.
Thompson, C. R and D, C. Thill (1992) Interrupted wind grass and broadleaf weed control in soft white winter wheat. Res. Prog. Rep. West. Weed. Sci. soc. weeds of agronomic crops. P 175-176.
Warkinson, A. R (1980) Density-dependence in single species populations of plants J Theor. Biol. 83:345-357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(80)90297-0
Weaver, S E (1991) Size-dependent economic thresholds for three broadleaf weed species in soybeans Weed technol. 5:674-679. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0890037X00027536
Wilkinson, R. E and H, E. Jaqurs (1979) How to know the weeds 3rd ed 235pp.
Wilson, B. J (1986) Yield responses of winter cereals to the control of broadleaf weeds. Pages 75-82. In proc European Weed Research Society symp. Economic. Weed control Stuttgart. Germany.
Zedler, J. B and P, H. Zedler (1969) Association of species and their relationship to micro topography within old fields. Ecology. 50:432-442. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1933894
Zimdahi, R. L (1988) The concept and application of the critical weed free period pages 145-155. In M. Altieri and M. Liebman (eds) weed management in agroeco systems. Ecological approaches. CRC. Press, Boca Ratan FL.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Taib. Farag Hesean
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright of the articles Published by Almukhtar Journal of Science (MJSc) is retained by the author(s), who grant MJSc a license to publish the article. Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors and cite MJSc as original publisher. Also they accept the article remains published by MJSc website (except in occasion of a retraction of the article).